Abstract: The study was carried out in 03 selected farmer’s pond at Kaliganj upazilla (sub district) under Lalmonirhat district during June to September 2019 having area of pond 0.30 acre each. Before stocking, ponds were dried and cleaned for weed and unwanted aquatic animals. The dried ponds were treated with limed at the rate of 250 kg/ha. Five days after liming, water was supplied from shallow tube well to the ponds and filled up to the depth of 1.5 meter. The fry of Koi (A. testudineues) with Shing (H. fossilis) and Rajpunti (P. gonionotus) were stocked at the stocking density of 200000; 75,000 and 12500/ha, respectively. After stocking, fish were fed with supplementary feed (30% crude protein). Fish sampling were done at monthly interval to know the fish growth as well as feed adjustment. After four months rearing, fish were harvested by repeated seine netting. Total bulk weight and number of fish from each pond was recorded. The results showed that Koi reached the harvesting weight ranged of 127-136g. While harvesting weight range of Shing and Rajpunti were found to be 29-32g and 234-250g, respectively. Based on the number of fish harvested at the end of the experiment, survival ranged from 83 to 89%. Total production of Koi (A. testudineues) with Shing (H. fossilis) and Rajpunti (P. gonionotus) as recorded in trial ponds were 23318, 1976 and 2562 kg/ha, respectively. Total production of fish as recorded in trial ponds were 27856 kg/ha.
Microgreen are currently in trending and gaining popularity due to high concentration of bioactive components that are generally related with human health. Due to scarce information available regarding antimicrobial compounds in microgreens, this study focused on determining the antimicrobial activity of kale and red spinach microgreens against B. subtilis and E. coli in comparisons with their mature plant. The plant extract antimicrobial activity was extracted using ethanol extraction method. Agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the diameter of inhibition zone of plant extracts. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) used microdilution with different concentration ranged from 1000 mg/ml to 31.25 mg/ml to evaluate the lowest concentration that can inhibit and kill the selected bacteria after incubation. Microgreens of kale and red spinach showed more effectiveness compared to their mature plants towards targeted bacteria in agar disc diffusion method. MIC and MBC value for all extract ranged from 62.5 mg/ml to 125 mg/ml. Hence, microgreens showed potential natural antimicrobial agent that can help to substitute the synthetic antimicrobial agent in preserving food.
The ever increasing feed cost and the need to produce quality chicken meat with minimal cost has necessitated the adoption of feed restriction which is cost effective and practical. The present study aimed at investigating the response of two strains of commercial cocks to different feed restriction regimen. They are black plumage and white feathered commercial cocks reared principally for meat production. A total number of 180 day-old cockerels of two strains comprising Black and White plumage (90 chicks each) were procured to examine and compare their growth characteristics. At 6th week of age, the birds were distributed into four treatments with three replicates for each strain. The treatments are, T1: control (ad libitum), T2: feed restricted (6th -7th week), T3: feed restricted (8th -9th week) and T4: feed restricted (10th -11th week). Analyzed results showed that there was significant (P<0.01) effect of strain on body weight at 6th and 12th week of age, while the two strains recorded similar mean values at 9th and 16th week. The black plumage cocks were superior (P<0.01) to white plumage cocks in terms of body weight at 6th and 12th week. This indicates differences in genetic make-up of the cocks. With regards to the feed restriction effect on birds, the cocks restricted at 6th week of age regardless of strain were better (P<0.01) with superior mean values when compared with those restricted at 8th and 10th week of age. It was observed that the cocks restricted at 10th week recorded the least mean values. The result reveal that birds restricted at younger age performed better in terms of body weight than those restricted at older age. Therefore, black feathered cocks could be raised by farmers to enhance good quality meat production and increased returns on investment. It is also suggested that for profitable, economical and cost effective rearing of cocks, feed restriction strategy could be practised at younger age.
Despite the importance of Loranthaceae parasites of woody plants in traditional African medicine, very few studies have been carried out on their diversity in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. The study aims to examine the diversity of Loranthaceae parasites of woody plants and determine their altitudinal distribution over the Mandara Mountains in the Far North region, Cameroon. It took place in nine (09) borough spread over four Departments of the Mandara Mountains. The experimental
setup is made up of 15 Hills (Altitude ≥ 1000 m), representing the main treatment. The
15 Hills are chosen at the rate of one Mount every ..................
A seventh-day feeding trial was done to assess the effect of Sweet orange
(Citrus sinensis) fruit peel (SOP) biodegraded with bovine rumen content (RC) on the
growth response of 5-week old New Zealand white rabbit. Fresh SOP divided into 4
equal portions SOP0, SOP1, SOP2 and SOP3, were mixed with RC in ratios 1:0, 1:01,
1:02 and 1:0.3 w/w, respectively. Each mixture was tied in a polythene sac, fermented
for 48 h, sun-dried to 10% moisture and the dried RC removed. Milled SOP0, SOP1,
SOP2 and SOP3 replaced 10% maize in control diet T1 to produce SOP based-diets T2,
T3, T4 and T5, respectively. Thirty rabbits were grouped into 5 of six each with similar
weight, and randomly assigned to one each of five diets. Rabbits were fed and served
water ad-libitum. Growth performance, carcass yield and nutrient digestibility were
determined. Diets had significant effect (p<0.05) on protein intake, protein conversion
ratio but not on body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, water
consumption, feed:water ratio. Dressing percentage and carcass cuts did not vary
significantly (p>0.05) but percent neck weight, liver weight and small intestine length
varied significantly (p<0.05). Coefficient digestibility of crude protein, fibre and fat
differed significantly (p<0.05). SOP biodegraded with bovine rumen content in ratio 1:0
to 1:0.3 can replace 10% dietary maize without adverse effect on growth response of
Aging has resulted in dramatic effects on body organs and development of
metabolic diseases with suspected origin from defects of gonads. The research is to
examine the aging related changes of cytological framework of the pituitary
adenohypophysis and demonstrate the antiaging effects of supplementation of whey.
Eight and 30-months old rats were divided into two main groups with or without whey
supplementation (n=4). Whey supplementation was carried out every other day for two
months. This was accompanied by euthanization and dissection of pituitary gland,
fixation in phosphate buffered osmium tetraoxide and processed for transmission
electron microscopic examination. Whey supplementation of 8 moth-old rats maintained
the secretory function of somatotroph and gonadotroph cells. However, old rats (30
month old) possessed edematous lesions in sommatotroph and gonadotroph cells with
degranulation of secretory granules. Congestion of blood capillaries and accumulation of
fat globules were observed. Whey supplementation to old rats improved the
cytopathological changes and restored the accumulation of secretory granules. The
capacity of whey supplementation to restore the secretory function of sommatotroph and
gonadotroph cells that are responsible for the secretion of growth hormone and
testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone that decrease the aging related
development of diseases.
Millions of children get debilitated and pass on consistently from water,
sanitation, and hygiene diseases. Children‟s ability to learn may be affected by
inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions in several ways. Twenty basic
schools under the School Feeding Programme were randomly selected from 10 towns
within the Mampong Municipality. A total of 140 pupils were randomly selected from
the 20 schools for the study. Water samples were taken from each of the schools for their
physicochemical and microbial quality analyses. The findings of the study revealed that
most of the water used by pupils in the selected schools had microbial contamination.
More than 70% of the towns had total coliforms in water samples whilst 50% of the
samples had faecal coliforms. Half of the towns had both faecal and total coliform in
their water samples. Total coliform values ranged from 0.67±0.58 to 37.67±19.66
cfu/100ml and faecal coliforms 4.33±4.51 – 11.67±7.64 cfu/100ml.All physicochemical
parameters were within allowable limits except pH, which were below the minimum pH
level in water recommended by WHO. pH levels were between 5.02±1.59 to 6.23±0.25.
It appears that microbial contamination was detected were very high in the form of Total
and Faecal Coliform Bacteria. And water samples were slightly acidic, compared to the
WHO recommended guidelines.