In this study, we conducted a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) survey of DGAT1 and CAPN1 genes on pure Australian imported Brahman (BRA) and crossbred cows between Brahman cows and Blanc Blue Belge bulls (BBB), Charolais (CHA) and Red Angus (RA). The SNP were made using the restriction enzyme shear pcr cleavage (PCR-RFLP). A total of 142 cows including: 37 BRA cows, 34 BRAxBBB crosses, 38 BRAxRA crosses, and 33 BRAxCHA crosses. The results showed that K232A polymorphism of DGAT1 gene allen type mainly K all accounted for 68.42% (BRAxRA) to 93.24% (BRA). The AA genotype only occurred in an individual in the BRAxBBB crossbred group (4.04%). For the g.5709 C> G polymorphism point in the CAPN1 gene, the CC genotype also appeared only in an individual of BRAxBBB cross-bred cow and was not found in other groups. Besides, the G allele frequency is quite high, from 66.73% (BRAxBBB) to 88.64% (BRAxCHA). The present study shows the prevalence of genotypes in imported Brahman and crossbred cattle between Brahman and other foreign beef breeds. The obtained results can be applied in selecting the superior genotype cows in the future
The ability to utilize Typha grass as a potential substrate for bioethanol production was analyzed in this research, the sample of Typha grass collected from Kware Lake was pretreated by autoclaving after it was initially dried and grounded into powdered form. The pretreated samplewas enzymatically hydrolyzed using Aspergillus niger for 7 days. The hydrolyzate was used to produce bioethanol by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was determined by HPLC analysis.The results indicated that pretreated Typha grass sample that was having higher lignin and hemicellulose composition of 28.15 % and 30.0 % was reduced to 14.29 % and 7.8 % respectively. Also, the α-cellulose composition was increased to a highest composition of 23.2 % from a lowest composition of 10.0 %. The pretreated sample that was hydrolyzed produced a highest reducing sugar yield of 19.14 g/L and the fermented hydrolyzate produced a bioethanol concentration of 2.07 % at day 6 of the fermentation period. From the results of this research, it is concluded that bioethanol can be produced from Typha grass and pretreatment can lessen cristallinity and expose cellulose thereby escalating reducing sugar yield for maximum bioethanol production
Long cooking time continues to be a major hindrance to the widespread
consumption of beans. It is an important trait with implications for gender equity, energy
utilization, and nutritional value of diets. In order to develop Phaseolus vulgaris genotype
with faster cooking time, an experiment was conducted at Dang University of Ngaoundéré
campus on five common bean cultivars and ten F1 hybrids synthesized from 5 x 5 half diallel
mating. Cooking time test was carried out on freshly harvested dry seeds (T=0) and 10 days
stored seeds (T=10) using the standardized Mattson cooker method. Analysis of variance
showed that, the differences among the five cultivars for cooking time were highly
significant (p< 0.001) for fresh and stored seeds indicating the presence of wide genetic
variability. Freshly harvested beans cook 3-4 times faster than beans stored for 10 days.
High broad sense heritability and high narrow sense heritability values showed the
preponderance of genetic variance and the additive gene action in the governing of cooking
time. The ratio GCA/SCA was greater than unity, confirming the importance of additive
genetic variance for this character. The fastest cooking lines PR and PB appeared also as the
best general combiners. Among the crosses, F1 hybrids PB x BI, PB x CT, PB x PR, PN x
PR and BI x PR had positive and significant specific combining ability. Recessive alleles
had positive effect for reducing cooking time and genotype PR had the maximum number of
recessive genes. These results would help breeders to improve this trait in terms of initial
parent selection and subsequent crossbred selection and breeding procedures.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is an autosomal recessive disease that manifests at the age 15 years or late in life. It is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy of the peripheries, and damages to the peripheral nervous system. It results from mutations in the AARS gene which causes neuro degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deleterious SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in the coding region of the Human AARS gene on protein structure and function using computational analysis. The nonsynonymous SNPs in the gene were downloaded from the dbSNP database in 2019.These SNPs were analyzed using various software including: Gene MANIA which provides information about the proteins interaction, Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant (SIFT),Polymorphism PhenotypingV2(Polyphen-2),Protein Variation Effect Analyzer v1.1 (PROVEAN), SNPs & GO, and Phd-SNP (Predictor of Human Deleterious Single Nucleotide Polymorphism)to sort out deleterious form non-deleterious SNPs. Then the effect of SNPs on the stability of the alanyl-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzyme were predicted using I-Mutant3.0 and Mupro, and lastly project HOPE was used to predict the effect of SNPs on the structure of the enzyme. The total number of the SNPs obtained was 11849, only 15 SNPs were found to be disease related using various software used. Using the stability software, 14 SNPs were found to decrease the protein stability. A total of 13 SNPs were predicted to be disease related and have not been reported before.
Biochemical Characterization of Two Nigerian Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes
Gambo, D., Momoh, O. M., Gwaza, D. S., Ogah, D. M., Ubu2, I., Agbu, C. S. and Abdullahi, J.
East African Scholars J Biotechnol Genet, 2020; 2(3): 42-48
The study was undertaken to investigate biochemical diversity within and between Tiv and Fulani local chicken ecotypes of Nigeria. The experimental birds were randomly sourced from ten locations. The locations (1-5) for the Tiv ecotype were Uikpan, Daudu, Kadarko, Yelwata and Cohor (in Benue and Nasarawa States) while that of the Fulani ecotype were Lafia, Akurba, Adogi, Asakio and Namu (in Nasarawa and Plateau States). At maturity, four (4) male and four (4) female birds were randomly selected from each location per ecotype to give a total of eighty (80) adult birds (40 birds each for Tiv and Fulani ecotype) and used for blood protein characterization study. Blood protein loci, namely haemoglobin, albumen, transferrin and carbonic anhydrase were analyzed using electrophoresis. Data collected from the biochemical analysis were analyzed using popgene version 1.31. The results indicate that, Allele A was prevalence in both the Tiv (0.563) and the Fulani (0.769) ecotypes for heamoglobin while Allele C for albumen was most prevalent in both ecotypes. In transferrin however, allele D (0.419) and allele A (0.689) were most prevalent in the Tiv and the Fulani ecotype, respectively. Carbonic anhydrase showed that Allele A dominated in both ecotypes with frequencies of 0.550 and 0.632 for the Tiv and the Fulani ecotypes respectively. The genetic variability (heterezygosity) value of the two ecotypes ranged from 0.360 to 0.654. The Tiv ecotype had higher heterozygosity value at all loci than the Fulani ecotype. All the protein loci for the two ecotypes had 100 percent polymorphic loci except in the Fulani ecotype where 75 percent polymorphic loci were observed for locations 2 and 3. The effective number of alleles (ne) was 2.273 and 1.779 for the Tiv and the Fulani ecotype, respectively with an average of 2.026. From the findings of this study, it was concluded that the Tiv and the Fulani chicken ecotypes are distinct genetic groups with sufficient genetic variability within
Datura stramonium contains allelochemicals which have allelopathic properties that have the potential to inhibit or stimulate vegetative plant growth. Aqueous leaf extract of D. stramonium at 25%, 50% and 100% concentrations were applied to determine their effects on plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, root length and internode length of two maize varieties (Sammaz-39 and Oba super-06) under field conditions. Distilled water (0%) served as control.The treated maize seeds were planted in the experimental field and the plots were laid as randomizedcomplete block design (RCBD) replicated three times.Results on the effects of D. stramonium leaf extract were determined for each treatment concentration. Results showed that D. stramonium leaf extract significantly increased plant height of Sammaz-39 at a concentration of 50% at 10WAP and also of Oba super-06 variety at a concentration of 50% at 8 and 10WAP. Number of leaves per plant was significantly decreased at 10WAP in Sammaz-39 at 100% concentration while Oba super-06 variety showed a significant decrease in number of leaves per plant at 50% concentration at 8WAP. The highest leaf length was observed at 25% concentration of D. stramonium leaf extract in Sammaz-39 at 8WAP and at 25% concentration for Oba super-06 at 2, 4, 6 and 8WAP. But at 10WAP, highest leaf length was observed in the control (0%). Root length was significantly increased in treated seeds of the two varieties; highest root length was observed at 50% concentration in both Sammaz-39 and Oba super-06. Internode length on the contrary, was significantly decreased at high concentration of 100% in Sammaz-39 while no significant difference was observed in the internode length of Oba super-06 variety. This study reveals that high concentration (100%) of D. stramonium leaf extract has inhibitory effects on number of leaves per plant, leaf length and internode length while lower concentrations (25% and 50%) has stimulatory effects on vegetati
Background: The cytochrome c, somatic (CYCS) gene encodes a small haeme protein that functions as a central component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Most important health condition related to mutations in the coding region of this gene was Thrombocytopenia 4 and affect apoptosis. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of non-synonymous SNPs (ns SNPs) of CYCS gene in protein function and structure using different computational software. Material and Methods: Different nsSNPs and protein related sequences were obtained from NCBI and ExPASY database (2020). Deleterious and damaging effect of SNPs were analyzed using SIFT, Provean, Polyphen-2 and SNPs & GO software. Protein stability was investigated using I-Mutant and MUpro software. The interaction of CYCS with other genes was studied using GeneMANIA software. The structural and functional impact of point mutations was predicted using Project Hope software. Results: A total of 100 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms were retrieved from National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). From these 68 were in the 3`UTR, 28 in the 5`UTR and 14 in the coding region (nsSNP). Only these 14 were selected for further investigations. Six nsSNPs were found to be deleterious while 8 were tolerated by SIFT. Using Provean 11 nsSNPs were found to be deleterious while 3 were Neutral. For PolyPhen-2, 5 nsSNPs were observed to be damaging while 9 were benign. Using PHD and SNPs&GO 9 and 6 nsSNPs were found to be disease related for the two software respectively. The change in the chemical nature of amino acid and how it affects the protein structure was analyzed using Project Hope. Conclusion: Six highly deleterious, damaging and disease related nsSNPs (rs17851278, rs11548796, rs121918552, rs11548820, rs11548818 and rs11548778) were detected at CYCS gene. These nsSNPs can be considered as candidate nsSNPs for diagnosis of Thrombocytopenia 4 and normal apoptosis.