Abstract: An algorithm for the estimation of the kinetic parameters using five lump kinetic schemes for fluid catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil has been developed. The optimization models were also developed using single point regression analysis to predict the pre-exponential function and activation energies. The mathematical models for the riser reactor were also developed to predict the yields of the various components. Mathematical model were integrated numerically using the fourth order runge-kutta algorithm. The optimization models were solved using Matlab version 8.4. Model predictions from the optimization model were, for activation energies Ei; 36.9920kJ/mol, 44.8125 kJ/mol, 41.8250 kJ/mol, 52.5800 kJ/mol, 57.2977 kJ/mol, 56.5128 kJ/mol, 50.5800 kJ/mol and pre-exponential function ki0; 0.0017400s-1, 0.00002160 s-1, 0.00002024 s-1, 0.00055195 s-1, 0.00006234 s-1, 0.000017464 s-1, 0.002542400 s-1 with a maximum deviation of 30%. The yield from the riser model showed gasoline as been the most obtained essential product and lesser coke formation compared to the yields obtained without optimization.
Abstract: In this work, a mathematical model has been developed for the simulation of multiple effect evaporators (MEE) system from a set of non-linear equations, Evaporation is the most energy intensive unit in pulp and paper industries, feed and product flashing, condensate, boiling point rise, vapour bleeding, etc are considered to reduce energy consumption. An inquiry into PZ PLC, a manufacturing industry situated in Aba, Abia state; for concentrating liquor using falling film plate evaporator in steam splitting in the first two effects to generate vapour used in vapour bodies within the system. Evaporation is the removal of solvent as vapour from a solution. It is the operation which is used for concentration of solution. There could be single effect evaporator or multiple effect evaporators. With addition of each effect steam economy of the system also increases. Evaporators are integral part of a number of a process industry like Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Caustic Soda, Pharmaceuticals, Desalination, Dairy and Food Processing etc. Caustic Soda Industry is of present interest. The system consists of triple effect having falling film evaporator as each effect. There is forward feed and backward feed flow. This paper describes a steady state model of multiple effect evaporators for simulation purpose. The model includes overall as well as component mass balance equations, energy balance equations and heat transfer rate equations for area calculation for all the effects. Each effect in the process is represented by a number of variables which are related by the energy and material balance equations for the feed, product and vapour flow for forward feed & backward feed, The results of present work with concentration in effect-I at 0.853558 was validated against previous work of (Kumar and Zain, 1996) at 0.7942216 and it shows close agreement. Also considering a backward result of effect-III product L_(3 )as 0.327396 while that of (Kumar and Zain, 1996) as 0.398923 fro
In this paper, we introduce an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier for
human activity recognition. The proposed system is divided to three stages; first we do
segmentation for raw data collected for two data sets WHARF and UCI-HAR to segment
length 128 and 256 with 50% overlap for WHARF, and 128, 256 and 512 with 50% overlap
for UCI_HAR. Second, for each segment, a set of time and frequency domain features are
extracted and delivered to the ANN classifier. From a practical point of view, activity
classification based on segments of data compared to the use of whole raw data is more
suitable and enables faster classification process, especially for short activities. The
proposed system is tested against other classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM),
naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) where ANN gives the best recognition rate. For
WHARF dataset, the average accuracy is 68% for segment length 128 and 80% for 256
segment length. On the other hand, employing accelerometer data only in UCI-HAR
dataset, the average accuracy is 93.9% for segment length 128, 94.6% for segment length
256 and 96.3% for segment length 512. While using gyroscope data in the same dataset
results in an average accuracy of 77.96% for segment length 128, 83.75% for segment
length 256 and 88.96% for segment length 512.
This study investigated the Effect of using Fabricated Motor – Generator device to teach Energy Concepts on Basic Science Students’ Achievement and Retention in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study employed quasi-experimental research design. The population for the study was 3741 JS2 students in North Senatorial District, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The sample of the study comprised 113 JSII students randomly sampled from two intact classes selected from public coeducational schools in North Senatorial District, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was the Energy Achievement test (EAT). The reliability coefficient of the (EAT) was 0.86. Means and Standard Deviations were used to answer research questions while the Analysis of Covariance(ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at a significance level of 0.05. The findings of this study reveal that the use of the fabricated Motor-Generator to teach Energy Concepts in Basic Science enhanced students’ achievement and retention than the conventional method. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made: Basic science teachers should be adequately trained on using the fabricated Motor-Generator device in the teaching through workshops and seminars. Curriculum planners like NERDC should incorporate the use of the fabricated Motor-Generator device to teach Energy concepts in Basic science.
History of the ground water reveals that, compare to surface water safest water on the crust is ground water but due to changes in the waste management pollution has been entered into the ground and contaminated the liquid state of the crust. In the present work, an effort has been made to evaluate the geochemical parameters of the ground water indices for suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigational needs. Total fifty samples from different location and random sampling is considered as the best technique of selecting a representative sample. All the ground water samples are alkaline in nature and within the permissible limit of WHO and BIS guidelines. In the present study period, the occurrence of major cations and anions showing in the following category. Na+>Ca2+>K=>Mg2+ = F->HCO3 >CO3->Cl-. Gibbs graph represents the two types of ratios between the TDS with Na++K+/Na++K++Ca2+ and Cl-/Cl-+HCO3- cations and anion respectively. Precaution to taken before using for drinking purposes, but after proper treatment can be used for drinking as per WHO.
A good number of structural failures can been traced to the quality of blocks used as walling materials (which provide lateral stability) in the construction of these structures. Some elastic properties which have been neglected to an extent with regards to block moulding technology were considered in this work. Blocks were produced with readily available and affordable laterite (in some locations) and fractionally substituted with river sand to reduce the effect of rising cost of river sand and also embrace the various advantages of laterite. The consequence of this substitution (10% - 40%) was considered on these elastic properties as well as the water absorption rate and the results show that inclusion of sand in the mix improved the elastic properties but reduced the durability assessed by the water absorption rate. The use of laterite in producing building blocks provides good thermal insulating and water resistance qualities as well as natural beauty and even resistance to termites, bacteria and fungi. This is beneficial in tropical regions
An effective means of incorporating the time dilation effect into relativity theory is to assume that the unit of time is directly proportional to γ (u) = (1-u2/c2)-0.5 on an object such as a light source that has been accelerated to speed u relative to the laboratory. In recent work it has been shown that a similar theoretical approach can be applied to other physical quantities such as length and inertial mass, and as a result, to all other mechanical properties in the mks system. This concept of uniform scaling can also be applied successfully for gravitational interactions. The question as to how the units of electromagnetic quantities such as electric charge and magnetic induction change with both acceleration and varying position in a gravitational field is therefore of considerable interest. Since the unit of electric charge can be chosen independently of the value of the permittivity of free space ε0, it is shown that all electromagnetic quantities can also be assigned units directly in the mks system, thereby making it a trivial matter to deduce their kinetic and gravitational scaling behavior. For example, the unit of electric charge can be 1 J as long as ε0 has units of 1 N. A table is given that makes a comprehensive comparison of the standard units in the Giorgi system with those in two such direct mks schemes. A simple procedure is also described for changing the numerical values of the units in a systematic manner by dividing the various electromagnetic quantities into five distinct classes. This allows one to equate the value of ε0 to 1/4π, for example, similarly as for the Gaussian system of units, while still retaining the same formulas as in the Giorgi system.