Abstract: Coronavirus disease-2019(COVID-19) pandemic has quickly become an infectious disease of worldwide concern and there exists gaps in the proper understanding of various patterns on HRCT imaging. This meta-analysis aims to summarise the most frequent HRCT patterns in COVID-19 from various published studies to aid the quick diagnosis. We aim to consolidate knowledge from original studies done on COVID-19 patients and characterise the imaging patterns on HRCT for quick diagnosis. This is a Meta-analysis on the various HRCT chest findings of COVID-19.Studies were procured from PubMed and Google Scholar database published between December 2019 and September 2020.The specific demographic and imaging patterns were analysed and pooled to form the meta-analysis using the random effects model and single-arm analysis. Total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Total pooled data consisted of 2787 RT-PCR positive cases. The three CT patterns most characteristic included Ground Glass Opacities (52%), Consolidation (40.4%), Interlobular Septal Thickening (14%). A combination of GGO and consolidation was most prevalent (59%). Other patterns noted included Crazy Paving pattern, Air Bronchogram, Pleural thickening, Pleural effusion, Bronchiectasis and Tree in bud. Most cases were bilateral (79%) and peripheral (77%). Lower lobe involvement: bilateral (66%), RLL (87%), LLL (81%). Upper lobe: Bilateral (61%), RUL (65%), LUL (69%). Right Middle lobe (55%). 25% had pan-lobar involvement. CT pattern recognition in potentially asymptomatic patients can be a diagnostic aid in early diagnosis of COVID-19. Ground glass opacities, consolidation and interlobar septal thickening in bilateral peripheral lungs was the most typical in COVID-19.
African men tend to present late with advanced prostate cancer (CaP) making prognosis grave despite treatment. This study was carried out to document findings in patients with metastatic prostate cancer at presentation. Seventeen (17) patients with metastatic CaP at presentation who had complete data were recruited. Peak age group was between 51 and 70 years of age with the commonest site of metastasis being bone (68.42%) and 2 patients (10.52%) having multiple sites of metastasis. The PSA range was 5.5-140 ng/ml with most patients having values above 20ng/ml and most patients were found to be within the higher prognostic grade groups. Metastatic prostate cancer is a challenge in our setting and there is need for routine screening for this disease.
A Rare Case of Lipomyelocele
Deepthi Ashok, Kalaichezhian Mariappan, Venkatraman Indran, Prabakaran Marimuthu
East African Scholars J Med Sci, 2020; 3(10):10-12
Gastrulation, primary neurulation and secondary neurulation are the stages of spinal cord development. Spinal dysraphisms are caused due to aberration in the stages. Lipomyelocele is an occult spinal dysraphism with an estimated incidence of 3.1 cases per 10,000 people. arly detection and prompt neurosurgical intervention is mandatory, for which spinal neuroimaging plays a critical role. Here: we present to a rare case of lipomyelocele with pilonidal sinus.
Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcers constitute one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus, with a staggering 25% lifetime risk. If not treated promptly, progression of infection and sepsis may necessitate a limb amputation. Studies from western population have shown significant implication of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in various wounds including Diabetic foot ulcers. Considering the early onset of complications including diabetic foot ulcers in Indian diabetic patients due to differences in lifestyle, culture, socioeconomic status and health education, the role of VAC therapy needs to be studied to establish the efficacy and safety of VAC therapy in the management of diabetic foot ulcers in an Indian population. Materials and methods: Randomized controlled trail conducted in the Department of General surgery PESIMSR from January 2018 to December 2018, in patients with Grade 1 and 2 diabetic foot ulcers (As defined by Wagner‟s classification). Results: Granulation tissue appeared in 28 patients by the end of week-2 in group I, while it appeared in 11 patients by that time in Group II. Wound was favourable for grafting in Group I compared to Group II by 4 weeks. Conclusion: In the present study it was concluded that the rate of granulation tissue formation, overall graft survival and patient compliance was better in negative pressure dressing group compared to conventional dressing group.
The way to perform Cesarean Section (CS) is different among countries and hospitals but even between obstetricians working in the same department. The post-operative outcome depends on the way how, and which surgical steps are performed. Therefore, it is important to use a universal and evidence-based method which has been compared in scores of studies with other methods and proved to show benefits, and is worldwide accepted. This method is the Misgav Ladach (Stark) operation, which has been developed while examining each single step for its necessity, and when so, for the most optimal way to perform it. The aim of this article is to share the method with our African colleagues, to explain the different steps and the logic behind them, in order to accept it for universal use all over the African continent.
Renal cell cancers are common and have a high rate of uncommon
manifestations. A third of patients with renal cell carcinoma present first with features of
metastasis. We report the case of a 43 year old woman presenting first to the ophthalmology
clinic with a facial mass and to the urology clinic 2 months later. She thereafter had radical
nephrectomy and subsequently, excision biopsy of the facial/ maxillary mass after initial
evaluation. Histology of both specimen showed papillary renal cell cancer and clear cell
papillary cancer, respectively. A consideration of renal cell cancer should be considered a
strong differential when patients present with tumours of the head and neck, knowing that
renal cancers can metastasize to virtually every part of the body.
Introduction: Stillbirth remains an enormous challenge in the care of pregnant
women, especially in developing countries. Intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) is an important
indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. The objective of the study
was to evaluate the socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD. Materials and
Methods: The present study was a prospective observational analytical study which was
conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, JNMCH, Aligarh from January
2019 to July 2019 and includes 160 pregnant women with confirmed intrauterine fetal death
(IUFD) on USG. Informed consent was taken from all the participants. A predesigned
proforma was used to collect relevant information from all those who gave consent to
participate in the study. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrical history,
menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and
method of delivery, and fetal outcome were recorded. Results: Through this study, overall
3900 deliveries was recorded, out of them 160 women were of stillbirth. The incidence of
IUFD was 41/1000 live births. The maximum age group of mothers were at rang 20-25years.
Majority cases of intrauterine fetal death were diagnosed among 32-36 weeks of gestational
age. There were 112 (70%) women who were unbooked with no antenatal visits and rest 48
(30%) were booked women. Majority of stillbirth 137 (62%) weighted less than 2500mg.
Amongst the identifiable causes, severe preeclampsia was present in 32 (20%) of the
women. This was found to be the most common cause responsible for IUFD followed by
anaemia which was present in 26 (16%) of women, fever in10(6.2%), gestational diabetes
mellitus in 7(5.3%) , UTI in 5(4.1%) , deranged coagulation in 7(3.4%) and deranged RFT
in 1(0.6%) of women. Conclusions: The present study is an effort to compile a profile of
maternal, fetal and placental causes culminating in IUFD.......