Six bacteria species, associated with raw milk contamination were
comparatively assessed in rural-peri urban case study using standard laboratory microscopy.
Entirely 80 milk samples, ~ 500ml were screened from Mampong Zongo and Daaho peri
urban cattle husbandry communities within the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Bacterial spots
discovered in the milk for relative contamination (cfu/ml) at dilution factor of 105
(12.76), 28 (12.62), 263 (5.98), 217 (14.39), 163.5 (3.65) and 34.3 (3.27), respectively for
total bacteria count, E. coli, Staphylococcus; Bacillus; Clostridium and Salmonella species.
The microbial isolates were comparatively not significant (P-values > 0.05) although;
Bacillus spp. predominated milk at both farms. The unhygienic traits of milk handlers
contributed to cross contamination, predisposing consumers to high risks of bacterial
infections. Farmers training on hygienic habits could urgently promote higher food chain
safety standards. Environmental Health Departments have a major role on food hygiene
public education during routine nutrition action plans in these peri urban communities. Food
and Drugs Authority in Ghana need to perform routine quality assessment of local milk
products to control pathogenic infections.
COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, first emerged in Wuhan, China, on December 2019. Subsequently, it has spread rapidly around the globe with severe public health burden. The authentic epidemiological information is important to guide public health decision-making. However, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh have not well documented. In this critical situation, we aimed to accumulate the epidemiological features of COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh. All the information of COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh were accumulated from national and international sources as of June 24, 2020. Extracted data were categorized according to potential epidemiologic parameters. A total of 1,22,660 confirmed cases and 49,666 recoveries were recorded until 24 June 2020 in Bangladesh. Among the confirmed cases a total of 1,582 deaths have confirmed with overall case fatality rate of 1.30%. In the regional distribution of COVID-19 infection, the highest magnitude of confirmed cases (56.20%) and deaths (77.20%) was observed in Dhaka division. Among the age groups of COVID-19 patients, ≥60 years group (39%) was severely fatal than young patients, whereas young individuals of 20-39 years were highly infected (55%). Regardless of age, a total of 70% cases with 72% fatality in males and 30% cases with 28% deaths were observed in females. A significant number of cases and deaths were also reported in different professionals of COVID-19 front-liners. COVID-19 has spread countrywide rapidly among all age and sex groups. Older with high comorbidities and male COVID-19 patients are at the higher risk of fatality in Bangladesh.
The main action of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the body is to disrupt the immune system by infecting CD4 T cells. This action has dramatic consequences, especially in women of childbearing age. To highlight this state of affairs, a study to evaluate and characterize possible changes in leukocyte and thrombocyte parameters in women of childbearing age in the city of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire) was conducted. In fact, 180 women of childbearing age were recruited into a specialized centre for the management of HIV-positive (CIRBA) based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood samples were taken from each of these women to perform their serology and to measure the leukocyte and thrombocyte parameters. The results of these investigations showed that the average values of the thrombocytes in the infected women were altered contrary to the leukocyte parameters. In addition, HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) caused an alteration of all the parameters studied. Indeed, a significant difference was observed between them at the level of leukopenia (46.7% vs 30%), neutrophilia (8.3 % vs 1.7%), lymphopenia (20 % vs 3.3%) and low CD4 count (43,3% vs 13,3%), where the proportions were higher in women without ART treatment than in women receiving ARV therapy. This significant difference (p < 0.05) was also observed in lymphocytosis (11.7 % vs 36.7 %), thrombocytopenia (0% vs 3.3%) and elevated CD4 count (15% vs 33.3%). At that level, the proportions of elevated lymphocyte values, CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased thrombocyte values decreased in untreated women compared to women on treatment. This study found that non-pregnant women without antiretroviral therapy were most exposed to leukopenia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytosis.
Prevalence of Parasites of Public Health Importance Identified from Musca Domestica in Jos Metropolis, Plateau State-Nigeria
Agbalaka, I. Priscilla, Obeta, M. Uchejeso, Ejinaka, R. Obiora, Dajok, D. Godfrey, Jwanse I. Rinpan & Oraekeyi Nkiruka P
EAS J Parasitol Infect Dis, 2020; 2(3):30-34
There are numerous Musca domestica (houseflies) in Jos environment which may carry parasites of public health importance. The eating and meat processing tables Jos in Jos do not lack the flies. The study was aimed at discovering the species and prevalence of parasites found in houseflies in Jos. 400 houseflies were captured from four areas of Jos metropolis - Old Bukuru Park, Abattoir, FSMLT hostel & Terminus and taken to the Federal School Medical Laboratory in Jos for parasite identification analysis of the internal and external parts of houseflies using Ochei & Kalhatkah method. The prevalence of parasites seen in the study are: Hookworm (32.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (21.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (16.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (13.2%), Fasciola spp (7.5%), Teania spp (5.7%), and Balantidium coli (2.9%). The study shows that both the external and internal parts of the flies in Jos Metropolis carried various concentration of parasites depending on the various locations understudy which includes: Hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba Histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Fasciola specie, Taenia specie, and Balantidium coli. The implication is that the numerous flies amidst various hips of refuse in various areas of the metropolis could overwhelm community health professionals if not prevented. The parasites seen in his study can cause serious public health challenges in Jos Metropolis and therefore, needs the public health attention to reduce parasitic spread of infection in the Metropolis.
The study was conducted in school going children in an urban slum of Nakuru Municipality of Nakuru County, Kenya. The main objective of this study was to estimate the levels and identify the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among school going children residing in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study design was used to select subjects from whom stool specimens were obtained. Two primary schools were randomly selected and used to select 20 pupils from each class (Class 4 to 8). A total of 200 children were randomly selected from the age between 9-17 years. Direct microscopy and concentration methods were used to examine stool samples to detect cysts of protozoa, and larvae and ova of helminthes. 27 stool specimens out of 100 specimens collected from one study site were found to contain cysts or ova of some intestinal parasites while 22 out of 100 stool specimens collected from the other study site were found to contain cysts or ova of some intestinal parasites; no adult worms, neither proglottids of Taenia species were seen in stool specimens from both study sites. Anthropometric measurements were also determined. There were high levels of parasitic infestations that could be attributed to unhygienic conditions, improper disposal of sewage and the non-availability of potable water supplies in the urban slum areas. The study recommends further studies on children in other schools within the slum areas, additional studies in other children attending schools out of the slum areas and regular de-worming programs introduced and enhanced in the affected areas.
Coronavirus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic in March 2020. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with more than 2,973,347 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 206,018 deaths worldwide. Currently, no specific medication is recommended to treat COVID-19 patients. However, governments and pharmaceutical companies are struggling to quickly find an effective drug to defeat the coronavirus. In this review article we summarize the usefulness of C-reactive protein as positive phase protein and albumin as negative phase protein as investigator of mortality for COVID-19 patient. Relying on C-reactive protein level to albumin level ratio over either albumin or C-reactive protein alone. Ferritin level also may be good predictor for morbidity and mortality but it is affected by iron overload and existing stress condition in COVID-19 patient result in deviation in ferritin level to be higher than expected. Ratio of ferritin to albumin is useful in determining the mortality, risky, diagnostic, following, determination in many illnesses. In our article we will focus in the possibility of the clinical usefulness of C-reactive protein and ferritin level to albumin ratios in triaging, stratifying, diagnosis, following and assessing COVID-19 infected hospitalized patients.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) considered a global pandemic that threatens worldwide health and economy. Outbreaks of such emerging infections present health professionals with the unique challenge of trying to select appropriate pharmacologic treatments in the clinic with little time available for drug testing and development. with neither vaccine nor drugs are currently approved for it, the treatment is basically supportive and symptomatic and that explain why the treatment of this novel virus is very difficult. Repurposing of approved pharmaceutical drugs for new indications presents an ideal alternative solution. Recently, a published study is discussed about the use of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial drugs and then the addition of antibiotics drugs such as Azithromycin which is one of the macrolide antibiotics as a combination with HCQ regimen. One of the limitations of it is increase the risk of a polymorphic ventricular arrythmia (TdP) that may be serious and potentially life-threatening. So, we looking for a safer option as Azithromycin monotherapy. In this review there will be a full elucidation behind the selection of a high dose of Azithromycin monotherapy as a potential red blood cell invasion inhibitor in COVID-19 infected patients based on studies and clinical trial showed its efficacy in such similar mechanism as in the treatment of malarial merozoites RBC invasion.