A total of 200 sera samples were collected from Guinea fowl (100) and Pigeons
(100) and subjected to Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Out of
these, 99 samples (49.5%) were found positive for MG antibodies. The prevalence of MG
infection was 60% in Guinea fowl and 39% in Pigeons. In Guinea fowls the males has a
slightly high prevalence of 61.7% compared to the females with a prevalence rate of
57.5%. This study revealed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is prevalent and
widespread in both Guinea fowls and Pigeons within Sokoto metropolis. In Nigeria and
most part of Africa these two species are usually reared in the same households with the
local chickens hence may serve as potential source of infection to them resulting in a more
severe disease in the chicken population.
This study was conducted on 160 poultry farmers in Sokoto state, Nigeria with
the use of questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude and compliance of poultry
workers with preventive measures for poultry diseases in six Local Government Areas of
the State. Information obtained from respondents showed that about 82.5% knows about
poultry disease with 3.3% through newspaper, 1.5% television, 1.5% friends and 84.9%
experience. The most common poultry disease known was Newcastle disease (41%)
followed by Gumboro (40%) and coccidiosis (31.9%) among others. Also 60.6% of the
respondents have heard about poultry disease outbreak with Avian Influenza having the
highest frequency of 63.9%. Only 39.4% had ever experience an outbreak on their farm
while 32.5% had never experienced it. Out of all the respondents 46.3% received lectures
or training on poultry diseases often and 30% do not. Disease prevention methods
employed in both commercial farms and backyard ones includes vaccination (82%),
medication (71%), sanitation (43%), disinfection (10.6%), use of foot dip (60.6%), use of
farm personnel clothing (59.4%), isolation of sick birds (88.1%). 48.1% of the farmers had
their farms free of wild birds (vectors) while the rest had invasions. Twenty-one point nine
per cent of the respondents disposed carcasses in refuse dump while 31.9% preferred to
bury poultry carcasses. Finally, it was concluded that, the low level of commercial poultry
production in the study area might be due to poor practices by the farmers. So, it is
recommended that, government should put program about training poultry farmers on
biosecurity, disease prevention and adoption of modern husbandry practices suitable for
both commercial poultry production system and backyard poultry production system.
The study was undertaken to determine the presence and concentration of some
heavy metals in selected tissues of cattle slaughtered from southern agricultural zone of
Nasarawa state using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Fifty samples
comprising 10 each of liver, kidney, skin, intestine and muscle were collected and analyzed
for the presence of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu and Cd. Male and female cattle of two age categories
(Young and Older) were sampled for the study. The mean concentration of Ni, Pb, Cu and
Cd in all the sampled tissues were generally low and within the permissible limit. High
levels of Cr was detected in all samples with mean concentration of 3.9926 mg/kg, 2.4440
mg/kg, 2.9909 mg/kg, 2.1688 mg/kg and 4.0100 mg/kg in intestine, kidney, liver, muscle
and skin respectively. There exist significant difference (P< 0.05) in the mean
concentration of Ni and Cu between young and older cattle. Higher levels of Cr, Pb and Cd
was detected in the tissues of female animal than male. The result from this study indicates
that cattle slaughtered from the study area are free from Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb residues, but
contained high levels of Cr. Public and private sector should establish cattle ranches so as
to reduce the possibility of grazing cattle in heavy metal contaminated feed and pasture.
This study was conducted in Khartoum North – Sudan to detect antibiotic residues in different poultry tissues (liver, gizzard and muscle) using Bacillus subtilis as a test organism. A total of 213 tissue samples were obtained from a poultry slaughter house used to slaughter poultry from different poultry farms in Khartoum north. The filter paper and whole tissue methods were used and compared using Bacillus subtilis as test organism . The total number of positive samples was 67 (31.4%) The highest percentage of positive samples was detected in the liver tissues 44 (62%) and the least was in the muscles tissue 8 (11.3%). ( ≥ 3mm inhibition zone was regarded positive).There was no significant difference between this standard inhibition zone and the inhibition zone diameter produced by liver samples , but the diameter of the inhibition zone in the gizzard and the muscle vary significantly with the standard inhibition zone set for the test, with p 0≤.05. Kappa statistic was used to measure the agreement between the two method used to detect the antibiotic residues, there was a significant agreement between the two methods with p ≤.05 and the percentage agreement was 78.8%. Also chi square test showed a highly significant association between the two methods. The current study concluded that the poultry meat showed detectable levels of antibiotic residues which may indicate the widespread misuses of antibiotic in poultry farms and the lack of awareness of farmers regarding the recommended withdrawal periods of drugs.
The purpose of this study was to examine effect of mixed acidifier supplementation as feed additive on small intestinal morphology in laying duck. The acidifier used was in 2 forms, namely formic and fumaric acids and mixed at ratio of 1:1. This research method used in vivo experiment by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). One hundred and fifty female ducks aged 50 weeks were randomly distributed into 5 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments consisted of T0-= basal feed/control. T0+= basal feed with addition of Bacitracin antibiotic 0.1%. T1= basal feed + 0.1% mixture of formic and fumaric acids at ratio of 1:1, T2= basal feed + 0.2% mixture of formic and fumaric acid at rasio 1:1, and T3= basal feed + 0.3% mixture of formic and fumaric acids at ratio of 1:1. The variables observed were intestinal morphology of ileum consisting of villus number, villus height, crypt depth, basal width, apical width, and villus surface area. The results showed that there were significant effects (P>0.05) in the villus height and apical width and highly significant effects (P>0.01) in the total villus number. On the other hand, treatments showed no difference effect (P<0.05) on crypt depth, basal width and surface area. In conclusion, the acidifier treatment improves intestinal morphology, especially when formic and fumaric acid mixture were supplemented at 0.1%.
An ethnobotanical survey in Kyanamukaaka Sub-county, Masaka District was carried out to document medicinal plants used to cure helminths and other different ailments of cattle. Information on local plants used for curing helminths and other cattle diseases was obtained purposively using structured questionnaires, personal observations, interviews of herdsmen, herbalists, and farmers. Twenty-four (24) medicinal plant species used to treat helminthosis belonging to 13 families were mentioned. Euphorbiaceae being the most used (21%) family, and Fabaceae (17%) followed by Solanaceae (13%), Verbenaceae, Caparicacea, Gramineae, Phytolacaceae, Moringaceae, Lamiaceae were among the least used medicinal plants families with (4%) each. Leaves were the most used anthelmintic medicinal plant parts (46%). Ethnoveterinary medicine practices involved the use of plants as remedies collected specifically from the bush (34.9%), majority of which were herbs (33%) prepared mainly by maceration (59%) and the oral route accounted for (92%) then topical/ocular route 8% as means of administration of the anthelmintic remedies. Dosage administration varied among different remedy users. For the other ailments twenty-five (25) medicinal plants were reported, East Coast fever, trypanosomiasis, and fever were among mentioned other diseases. The research study contributes to the native knowledge of medicinal plants practiced among different communities, hence assisting in knowledge and practice preservation, which remain mostly with elderly traditional practitioners. However, there is a need for conservation, standardization of dosages, determination of the chemical composition, to be potential candidates for the development of commercial drugs.
Effects of Ecotype and Batch of Hatch on Biometric Characteristics of Tiv and Fulani Local Chickens of Nigeria
Gambo, D., Sabuwa, M. A., Guluwa, L. Y., Maichiki, W. P., Baba, M. K. and Mundi, H. L.
EAS J Vet Med Sci, 2020; 2(3):33-42.
Study was undertaken to determine variations in biometric parameters within and between the Tiv and Fulani local chickens. The study was carried out at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shabu-Lafia Campus, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State. A total of 110 birds comprising of 10 hens and 1 cock from each of five randomly selected locations for the Tiv and the Fulani chicken ecotypes were purchased and used as the base population. A mating ratio of 1 cock to 10 hens was applied to generate the experimental birds. After successful four batches of hatching, 538 chicks comprising 354 and 184 chicks for the Tiv and the Fulani ecotypes respectively were generated. The birds were raised according to their ecotype and location. Data were collected on biometric traits such as such as body length, shank length, wing lengths and breast girth. The data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using the SPSS statistical package. The results indicate that mean linear body measurements increased with advancing age until maturity in both ecotypes. The coefficients of variation (CV) values were generally higher in the Tiv ecotype compared to the Fulani ecotype. In the Tiv ecotype, the highest CV value (42.21 %) was noted in the breast girth at 8 week of age. However in the Fulani ecotype, wing length at week 1 showed the highest CV value (14.23 %). The Fulani ecotype had significantly (P<0.05) higher body length, wing length, shank length and breast girth compared to the Tiv ecotype at all ages. Batch of hatch had significant effect on body linear measures in both ecotypes. In the Tiv ecotype, birds in batch 1 had significantly (P<0.05) higher body linear parameters compared to other batches at weeks 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 except at at week 20 where batch 3 and 4 demonstrated significantly (P<0.05) higher wing length and breast girth. In the Fulani ecotype, batch 1 at weeks 1 and 4 had significantly (P<0.05) better breast gi