ABSTRACT Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is the most important source of protein, oil and also cash for poor farmers. Lack of improved variety and optimum phosphorus fertilizer rate are the most important limiting factor for the productivity of soybean. Therefore, an experiment was carried out at Omo Kuraz-1 Sugar Development Project during 2018 cropping season to determine the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilizer levels on yield and yield related traits of soybean varieties. Factorial combination of three soybean varieties (Nova, Awassa-04 and Gazolia) and four rates of P fertilizer (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg P205/ha were laid out in a RCBD with three replications. Data were collected for yield and yield components and analyzed using Statistical analysis software (SAS and Genstat). The analyses of variance showed that there was significant difference (p≤ 0.001) among the varieties for the entire tested parameters, indicating the presence of ample genotypic variation among then Awassa-04 Variety produced significantly high grain yield (1183 Kg ha-1 as compared to Gazolia (950 Kg ha-1) and Nova (566 Kg ha-1). Interaction of variety Awassa-04 with 69 Kg P205 ha -1 showed maximum grain yield (1352 Kg ha-1) while the minimum value (403 Kg ha-1) was recorded for interaction of Nova variety with 0 kg P205 ha-1. Based on the economic analysis phosphorus fertilizer application at rate of 69 Kg P205 ha –1 resulted in highest marginal rate of return (350.9%). Therefore, it was conclude that phosphorus fertilizer application at rate of 69 Kg P205 ha-1 can be recommended for the study area. However, further study should be done on different rate of phosphorous to come up with a more comprehensive recommendation.
ABSTRACT Adequate knowledge about honey bee flora is important for beekeeping this study was under taken to identify and document honeybee plants in West Arsi and East Shoa Zone using melissopalynological analysis of honey samples, pollen collection, plant inventory, structured questionnaires and field observation. Eighteen honey samples were collected from different parts of the zones. Out of 18 samples, 14 were identified as monofloral honeys and 4 as multifloral honeys. This indicated that there is high diversity of honeybee plant species in 4 honey samples that give flowers in the same season contributing for production of multifloral honey and 14 samples were dominated by few major honeybee plants due to their abundance in addition to their quality for honey production. Fifty eight (58) plants species were identified as honey source plants based on melissopalynological analysis of honey. Of 58 species, Guizotia scarba (89.7%). Eucalyptus (69.2%) Eucalyptus camadulensis (66.2%) Acacia tortolis (60.9%) Schefflera Abyssinia (70.2%) and Croton macronstachys (57.2%) provided mono-floral honey. The flowering calendar of the zone indicated two major honey flow periods from April to June and September to November. The scarcity of honeybee forages were observed in July to mid of August and January to February and mid of March. In many districts of the zone, herbaceous honeybee forage species were the dominant honey source plants in September to November. While, in March to May majority of honey source plants were trees and shrubs due to the phonological patterns of plants. To apply seasonal honeybee colony management, beekeepers should manage honeybee colonies following phonological pattern of honeybee plants. Beekeeping based agro forestry practices on cultivated rain fed land, and selection of plant species that can resist drought and bear (set) flower for a long season should be introduced in all land use types.
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Mst. Tanzina Islam
Nursing Instructor, Naogaon Nursing Institute, Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
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