Abstract: The study was conducted to find out the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves and seeds as a supplementary feed on the growth performance of all-male tilapia. The main objectives of the study were to determine effects of the supplementary feed (leaves + normal feed, seeds + normal feed, leaves + seeds + normal feed) on all male tilapia in terms of their average standard length, total length, standard width, total width and weight. The parameters for each of the treatments were measured fortnightly over the entire eight weeks period. The sample covered a total population of 260 fishes - 20 each from the hapa and 60 from each of the 4 ponds. The results revealed significant differences among the treatments (normal feed, leaves + normal feed, seeds + normal feed, leaves + seeds + normal feed) used on the parameters measured (average: standard length, total length, standard width, total width and weight) at (p < 0.05). The results clearly demonstrated that the seeds recorded higher (best growth) performance in terms of the parameters measured than all the other treatments administered. This was followed by combination of seeds and leaves with the normal feed only recording the least performance.
Abstract: The major advantage of using plant extracts for silver nanoparticle synthesis is that they are easily available, safe, and nontoxic in most cases, have a broad variety of metabolites that can aid in the reduction of silver ions, and are quicker than microbes in the synthesis. The main mechanism considered for the process is plant-assisted reduction due to phytochemicals. In present we had selected two plant - Ziziphus mauritina commonly known as Indian jujube (Ber) and Coriandrum sativum commonly known as coriander for the phytochemical screening, nanoparticle synthesis and antibacterial activity against Kliebsella pneumonia, Clostridium per fringes, Citrobacter freundii and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. All the bacteria selected in this study are highly and drug resistant. Potency of these plant extract against selected bacterial culture increases with formulation of nanoparticles .When compared with free extract in terms of zone of inhibition exhibited by bacterial culture. Zeta potential analysis of nanoparticles confirms that all the nanoparticles are of size loss them 100 nm. Stability of nanoparticles up to 15 days was observed which confirms the method of preparation of nanoparticle is stable and successful. Research finding confirms the format and stable nature of nanoparticles, which make them, potential and significant in drug delivery agent.
The ability to utilize Typha grass as a potential substrate for bioethanol production was analyzed in this research, the sample of Typha grass collected from Kware Lake was pretreated by autoclaving after it was initially dried and grounded into powdered form. The pretreated samplewas enzymatically hydrolyzed using Aspergillus niger for 7 days. The hydrolyzate was used to produce bioethanol by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was determined by HPLC analysis.The results indicated that pretreated Typha grass sample that was having higher lignin and hemicellulose composition of 28.15 % and 30.0 % was reduced to 14.29 % and 7.8 % respectively. Also, the α-cellulose composition was increased to a highest composition of 23.2 % from a lowest composition of 10.0 %. The pretreated sample that was hydrolyzed produced a highest reducing sugar yield of 19.14 g/L and the fermented hydrolyzate produced a bioethanol concentration of 2.07 % at day 6 of the fermentation period. From the results of this research, it is concluded that bioethanol can be produced from Typha grass and pretreatment can lessen cristallinity and expose cellulose thereby escalating reducing sugar yield for maximum bioethanol production
In this study, we conducted a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) survey of DGAT1 and CAPN1 genes on pure Australian imported Brahman (BRA) and crossbred cows between Brahman cows and Blanc Blue Belge bulls (BBB), Charolais (CHA) and Red Angus (RA). The SNP were made using the restriction enzyme shear pcr cleavage (PCR-RFLP). A total of 142 cows including: 37 BRA cows, 34 BRAxBBB crosses, 38 BRAxRA crosses, and 33 BRAxCHA crosses. The results showed that K232A polymorphism of DGAT1 gene allen type mainly K all accounted for 68.42% (BRAxRA) to 93.24% (BRA). The AA genotype only occurred in an individual in the BRAxBBB crossbred group (4.04%). For the g.5709 C> G polymorphism point in the CAPN1 gene, the CC genotype also appeared only in an individual of BRAxBBB cross-bred cow and was not found in other groups. Besides, the G allele frequency is quite high, from 66.73% (BRAxBBB) to 88.64% (BRAxCHA). The present study shows the prevalence of genotypes in imported Brahman and crossbred cattle between Brahman and other foreign beef breeds. The obtained results can be applied in selecting the superior genotype cows in the future
Long cooking time continues to be a major hindrance to the widespread
consumption of beans. It is an important trait with implications for gender equity, energy
utilization, and nutritional value of diets. In order to develop Phaseolus vulgaris genotype
with faster cooking time, an experiment was conducted at Dang University of Ngaoundéré
campus on five common bean cultivars and ten F1 hybrids synthesized from 5 x 5 half diallel
mating. Cooking time test was carried out on freshly harvested dry seeds (T=0) and 10 days
stored seeds (T=10) using the standardized Mattson cooker method. Analysis of variance
showed that, the differences among the five cultivars for cooking time were highly
significant (p< 0.001) for fresh and stored seeds indicating the presence of wide genetic
variability. Freshly harvested beans cook 3-4 times faster than beans stored for 10 days.
High broad sense heritability and high narrow sense heritability values showed the
preponderance of genetic variance and the additive gene action in the governing of cooking
time. The ratio GCA/SCA was greater than unity, confirming the importance of additive
genetic variance for this character. The fastest cooking lines PR and PB appeared also as the
best general combiners. Among the crosses, F1 hybrids PB x BI, PB x CT, PB x PR, PN x
PR and BI x PR had positive and significant specific combining ability. Recessive alleles
had positive effect for reducing cooking time and genotype PR had the maximum number of
recessive genes. These results would help breeders to improve this trait in terms of initial
parent selection and subsequent crossbred selection and breeding procedures.
Biochemical Characterization of Two Nigerian Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes
Gambo, D., Momoh, O. M., Gwaza, D. S., Ogah, D. M., Ubu2, I., Agbu, C. S. and Abdullahi, J.
East African Scholars J Biotechnol Genet, 2020; 2(3): 42-48
The study was undertaken to investigate biochemical diversity within and between Tiv and Fulani local chicken ecotypes of Nigeria. The experimental birds were randomly sourced from ten locations. The locations (1-5) for the Tiv ecotype were Uikpan, Daudu, Kadarko, Yelwata and Cohor (in Benue and Nasarawa States) while that of the Fulani ecotype were Lafia, Akurba, Adogi, Asakio and Namu (in Nasarawa and Plateau States). At maturity, four (4) male and four (4) female birds were randomly selected from each location per ecotype to give a total of eighty (80) adult birds (40 birds each for Tiv and Fulani ecotype) and used for blood protein characterization study. Blood protein loci, namely haemoglobin, albumen, transferrin and carbonic anhydrase were analyzed using electrophoresis. Data collected from the biochemical analysis were analyzed using popgene version 1.31. The results indicate that, Allele A was prevalence in both the Tiv (0.563) and the Fulani (0.769) ecotypes for heamoglobin while Allele C for albumen was most prevalent in both ecotypes. In transferrin however, allele D (0.419) and allele A (0.689) were most prevalent in the Tiv and the Fulani ecotype, respectively. Carbonic anhydrase showed that Allele A dominated in both ecotypes with frequencies of 0.550 and 0.632 for the Tiv and the Fulani ecotypes respectively. The genetic variability (heterezygosity) value of the two ecotypes ranged from 0.360 to 0.654. The Tiv ecotype had higher heterozygosity value at all loci than the Fulani ecotype. All the protein loci for the two ecotypes had 100 percent polymorphic loci except in the Fulani ecotype where 75 percent polymorphic loci were observed for locations 2 and 3. The effective number of alleles (ne) was 2.273 and 1.779 for the Tiv and the Fulani ecotype, respectively with an average of 2.026. From the findings of this study, it was concluded that the Tiv and the Fulani chicken ecotypes are distinct genetic groups with sufficient genetic variability within
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is an autosomal recessive disease that manifests at the age 15 years or late in life. It is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy of the peripheries, and damages to the peripheral nervous system. It results from mutations in the AARS gene which causes neuro degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deleterious SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in the coding region of the Human AARS gene on protein structure and function using computational analysis. The nonsynonymous SNPs in the gene were downloaded from the dbSNP database in 2019.These SNPs were analyzed using various software including: Gene MANIA which provides information about the proteins interaction, Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant (SIFT),Polymorphism PhenotypingV2(Polyphen-2),Protein Variation Effect Analyzer v1.1 (PROVEAN), SNPs & GO, and Phd-SNP (Predictor of Human Deleterious Single Nucleotide Polymorphism)to sort out deleterious form non-deleterious SNPs. Then the effect of SNPs on the stability of the alanyl-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzyme were predicted using I-Mutant3.0 and Mupro, and lastly project HOPE was used to predict the effect of SNPs on the structure of the enzyme. The total number of the SNPs obtained was 11849, only 15 SNPs were found to be disease related using various software used. Using the stability software, 14 SNPs were found to decrease the protein stability. A total of 13 SNPs were predicted to be disease related and have not been reported before.