Abstract: To over half the world's population, rice is the primary staple food. In recent years, there has been a shift from transplanted rice to direct-seeded rice cultivation mainly driven by seasonal scarcity of agricultural labor, increasing water scarcity, and high cost of production. Labor constraints mean sowing and transplanting are often delayed, resulting in yield losses. It is cost and time intensive for farmers. It causes adverse effects to soil and environment. Because of the low input demand, direct-seeded rice (DSR) has gained a lot of attention. Direct seeded rice refers to the process of developing seed crops from field seeds instead of transplanting seedlings. Three methods of direct seeding are known, namely: dry-DSR, wet-DSR and water seeding. Precise land grading, good crop establishment, accurate water management, weed management, and nutrient management are the most important prerequisites for successful direct-seed rice crop. There are no varieties to date specifically targeted for DSR but many of the inbred varieties and hybrids bred for puddled transplanted are found to be suitable. Direct seeding follows the aerobic cultivation of paddy, so the nutrient dynamics are altered. Several key nutrients like N, P, S, Zn, and Fe are likely to be a constraint. The infestation of weeds can cause significant loss of DSR yield.
Abstract: Dissemination and adoption of improved agricultural technologies is an important factor towards improved agricultural production. Agricultural extension services are either provided through public extension or private extension service. The study objective was to compare the effectiveness of both project and conventional extension approaches on levels of maize production among small-scale farmers in Seme Sub-County, Kisumu County. An Ex post facto study design and purposive random sampling technique was used. The sample size of 180 small-scale maize farmers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The levels of maize production was operationalised as the dependent variable while selected agricultural extension approaches were the main independent variables. Moderator variables were selected socio-economic factors including gender, household size, age, household income, farm size and level of education. Descriptive statistic was used and inferential analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20 software. The beneficiaries of project extension approach realised better levels of maize production in terms of yields as compared to beneficiaries of conventional extension approach as findings showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between the approaches. From the findings it is recommended that there is a need to support dissemination of selected maize production technologies through project extension approach as an alternative extension approach to conventional extension approach in the study area and beyond.
A Rapid Assessment of the Invasive Dodder Weed, Cuscuta Spp. on Robusta Coffee, Coffea robusta in Busoga Coffee Growing Sub-Region, Eastern Uganda
Godfrey H. Kagezi, Gerald Kyalo, Judith Kobusinge, Elizaphani Nkuutu, Jimmy Baluku, Geofrey Arinaitwe, Emmanuel I. Niyibigira
East African Scholars J Agri Life Sci; 2021, 4(3): 55-66
Abstract: Despite the importance of coffee to the national economy and livelihood of Ugandans, its yields remain low due to a number of constraints, with pests and diseases being paramount. The recent outbreak of dodder weed, Cuscuta spp. is threatening the coffee sub-sector, particularly in Busoga sub-region. A rapid assessment was therefore conducted in the Busoga sub-region to determine farmers’ knowledge as well as status, distribution and damage of dodder weed on coffee and other plant species. Our results showed that all the respondents had knowledge of Cuscuta spp. However, only 57.1% of them had observed the weed on coffee and only recently - between 2019 and 2020 (50%). At plot level, dodder was observed in all the surveyed districts. On average, dodder was recorded on 40% and 10.4% of the coffee gardens and trees sampled respectively. It was also observed on 33 other plant species, with highest scores being recorded on: - M. lutea (18.6%), T. peruviana (15.7%) and D. erecta (8.6%). Respondents mentioned that dodder was mostly dispersed by humans – children (40%) and herbalists (5.1%). Further, 28 alternative hosts of dodder were mentioned by the respondents, with Thevetia peruviana (64%), Mangifera indica (40%), Duranta erecta (24%) as well as Artocarpus heterophyllus and Markhamia lutea (14%) being most outstanding. Few of the respondents had knowledge of the use of dodder – witchcraft (24.3%) and herbal medicine (5.7%). Most (81%) of the respondents were managing dodder by physically removing it. This study therefore provides baseline information for developing sustainable management strategies for dodder in coffee agro-systems.
Abstract: A better understanding the evolution of female desert locust multiple mating role is key to understand locust phase polyphenism and locust outbreaks. In this study, we analyse the cost and the benefice of multiple mating in desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. We demonstrated that female desert locust fecundity and fertility is not affected by multiple copulation. We found that multiple mating affect female lifespan where we observed an increase in mortality in females mated with more than one male comparatively to females mated with a single male. We found that survival of offspring from females mated with two, three, four males remain higher and our results show that about 90% of larvae reach at imago stage while only 74% of larvae reach at imago stage in females mated with single male. The sense of this result could be male-derived nutrients which are incorporated in female eggs thereafter in hatchlings. Multiple mating in S. gregaria acts as hormonal factor which controlling egg size and eggs contain which acted on offspring condition with a really impact on survival.
Abstract: A wetland is an ecological community that is inundated either year around or seasonally. Wetlands are found from the tundra to the tropics and on every continent except Antarctica. There are many kinds of wetlands and many ways to categorize them. Two general categories of wetlands are recognized namely coastal or tidal wetlands and inland or non-tidal wetlands. Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense biodiversity of species of microbes, plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem. Wetlands perform significant economic benefits to human society, including some ecosystem services that no other ecosystem can provide, including certain types of water quality improvement, flood protection, shoreline erosion control, and opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation and natural products for our use at no cost. Protecting wetlands in turn can protect our safety and welfare. A primary intent of this article is to provide the reader with special interest in wetland delineation, wetland benefits, wetland mitigation and wetland biology. Wetlands are no more thought to be useless, disease ridden areas rather they are now considered to be an ecological boon for the environment!
Abstract: A study was carried out to grasp the importance of hybridization, irradiation and their combination in enhancing boll weight, boll number, seed cotton yield, fiber length and strength in desi cotton. A 202 progenies comprising of F4M4, M4, F4 and double cross F3 were evaluated at MARS UAS, Dharwad to obtain information on mean, variance, range, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for 13 traits. The mean, range and variance among progenies, F4M4 progenies exhibited relatively higher progeny mean performance and wider range of values for most the traits. The high estimates of PCV and GCV were recorded for M4 generation for boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn and 2.5% span length indicates simple irradiation helps to improve these traits. The high heritability coupled with high genetic advance for seed cotton yield and yield components as well as fiber quality traits among progenies. The superior progenies varied considerably across the traits, F4M4 contributed higher number of superior progenies followed by F4 progenies produced higher number of superior progenies compared to others.
Abstract: This study was carried out in lath house belong to Department /Horticulture and Landscape design /college of Agriculture and Forestry / University of Mosul for the period from (1 July 2019) to (1 December 2019), to determine the effect of foliar application of proline at (zero, 25, 50) mg.l-1 as well as treatment with Optimus plus fertilizer which was produce according to nano technology consist of (5% Nitrogen, 30% Amino acid, 3% Organic nitrogen) at (zero, 1) ml.l-1 sprayed on the vegetative growth and between sprinkle and the next 20 days, the last factor include three irrigation levels of watering at (100%, 50%, 25%) of filed capacity in growth of pelargonium graveolens L.. The experiment were analyzed statistically by using Factorial with in Split-Plot Design in randomized Complete Block Design with three replication and five plant per treatment, was used. Duncan test used to compare between means at 0.05 probability level. The irrigation level 25% of F.C caused significant decrease in the most of studded parameters. The difference in spraying with the amino acid proline caused a significant increase in the parameters of: number of branches, length of the longest root, proline content and volatile oil ratio. But spraying by nano fertilizer Optimus plus cause significantly increased the all growth, chemical and anatomic parameters.