ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to explain the diversity of casein alpha S1 (CSN 1S1) gene in ruminant animals. The neighbour joining tree inferred the genetic distances among and between species of the CSN1S1 sequences. The tree showed a closer genetic distance between the sequences of Capra hircus and Ovis aries, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus, Capra hircus and Bubalus bubalis as well as Bos taurus and Capra hircus. UPGMA tree derived from the consensus sequences, indicates that Bos taurus sequences were more closer to Bubalus bubalis sequences, compared to the sequence of Ovis aries and Capra hircus respectively. The results of the substitution pattern were more homogenous between the sequence of Capra hircus and Ovis aries (0.00) and Capra hircus and Bubalus bubalis (0.00) followed by the sequence of Bos taurus and Capra hircus (0.01) whereas the lowest homogeneity substitution pattern was observed between the sequence of Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis (0.31). The highest evolutionary divergence was observed between the sequence of Ovis aries and Bubalus bubalis and the evolutionary divergence appeared to be species wise. The results indicates that all the CSN1S1 sequences of the selected ruminant species were not significant and the test implies that the strict-neutrality for synonymous (dN) and non-synonymous (dS) substitution from the sequences used were neutral. This findings would aid in understanding of species genetic variation and similarities resulting from their sequences.
ABSTRACT The present study was carried out in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria to evaluate the serum biochemical, minerals, and haematological parameters in pregnant and lactating Ewes in Lafia Metropolis. Eighteen (18) apparently healthy adult sheep comprising 9 pregnant and 9 lactating Ewes were used for this study. The Ewes’ age were between 2.5-3years based on dentition following the standard protocol. 5ml of blood samples were taken by jugular venipuncture from both the pregnant and lactating Ewes, into two sets of collection tubes. The first set were non-heparinized tubes without anticoagulant for serum minerals and serum biochemical analysis while the second set of tubes were the heparinized tubes containing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) which serves as anticoagulant for haematological analysis. All statistical analyses were done using General Linear Model (GLM) of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22). The level of statistical significance was defined as (P<0.05). Fisher’s Least Significance difference (LSD) was used to separate the means. The values of serum Creatinine of lactating Ewes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the pregnant Ewes values while the values of serum albumin of pregnant Ewes was significantly ((P<0.05) higher than lactating values respectively. The values of serum urea, globulin and total protein of pregnant and lactating Ewes did not differ significantly (P<0.05). No significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the serum mineral values of pregnant and lactating Ewes. The values of Packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) of pregnant and lactating Ewes did not differ significantly (P<0.05). The findings from this study would aid in understanding the physiological status of sheep
ABSTRACT Monthly mean Piche evaporation, mean air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed data over Sudan and South Sudan for the period 1971- 2000 were obtained as normal data for 19 stations from Sudan Meteorological Authority and analyzed to study the effect of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on Piche evaporation. The results showed strong linkages between Piche evaporation and either of mean air temperature and relative humidity in the hyper-arid, sub humid and humid regions. The results also showed strong linkages between Piche evaporation and wind speed in the sub-humid and humid regions of the Sudan and South Sudan. Piche evaporation for various stations can easily be predicted from equations incorporating air temperature, relative humidity or their combinations
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