ABSTRACT Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an inflammatory disease. Together with oxidant stimuli, which directly affect lung structures, macrophages, neutrophils and CD8+ lymphocytes actively participate in the pathogenesis of the disease and promote biochemical reactions that result in progressive alteration of the upper airways and irreversible lung remodeling. The release of substances promoted by inflammatory cell recruitment and by oxidative stress lead to a temporary imbalance in the pulmonary defense mechanisms. Understanding the long-term maintenance of this imbalance is key to understanding the current physiopathology of the disease. The present study explores the cellular and molecular alterations seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease is a common chronic inflammation of the natal cleft and is mainly seen in young adults. Authors of some earlier works regarded the condition as congenital. Recently, it has become widely accepted that the condition is acquired, and thought to originate from hair follicles. Many treatment options has described in literature, thus in this study we present our results with Limberg flap reconstruction on pilonidal sinus disease. 38 patients underwent limberg flap reconstruction for pilonidal sinus disease enrolled in this study. No bleeding has occur intra and postoperatively, 2 patients developed urinary retention (%5.2), on 1 patient with diabetes mellitus wound dehiscence has developed which has treated with 3 week long simple debridement method (%2.6). 1 patient developed superficial infection treated with basic antibiotics (%2.6). No other complications has developed. No recurrence has seen in -mean -11.2 month period. We think limberg flap closure on pilonidal sinus disease is an effective and safe option.
ABSTRACT Hemorrhoidal disease is a common anorectal disorder characterized by the symptomatic enlargement and distal displacement of the hemorrhoids, which are the normal anal cushions. The main symptoms of hemorrhoidal disease include rectal bleeding, prolapse, pain, thrombosis, mucus discharge, and pruritus. Hemorrhoids are classified based on their location and the degree of prolapse. Clinical management of hemorrhoidal disease is based on severity. While conservative strategies are used for Patients with grades I or II disease, radical surgery is recommended for patients with grades III or IV hemorrhoids. Hereby we present our results of thrombectomy on acute treatment in patients with acute thrombosed hemorrhoids. 54 consecutive cases included this study. The mean age of the Patients was 38.5(+/-4.1), 22 patients were male, 32 patients were female. All patients underwent thrombectomy procedure and 8th hour 12th hour, 24th hour and 3rd day VAS scores were (4.1; 3.4; 5.8; 2.1) consecutively. 1 patient had developed intraoperative bleeding which controlled with monopolar electrocautery application, no postoperative bleeding has seen. 1 patient developed slight infection which controlled with simple antibiotics. No other complication has seen after procedure. Our study’s the results were similar with literature and as conclusion we believe thrombectomy is a very safe and effective method of management of acute hemorrhoidal crisis in patients with thrombosed hemorrhoids.
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Mst. Tanzina Islam
Nursing Instructor, Naogaon Nursing Institute, Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
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