ABSTRACT Objectives: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to an infectious and inflammatory disorder of the female upper genital tract. It is common among young sexually active individuals and is a major health problem both in the developed and developing countries. It is usually a polymicrobial infection, however, Chlamydia trachomatis is the commonest causative agent transmitted sexually. PID is diagnosed by history and clinical examination. The treatment is initially empiric. Only Antibiotcs are good in treatment for PID and ‘Antibiotics with Prebiotics’ are new promising treatment mode for same. This comparative study aimed to measure efficiency and compliance of only Antibiotcs versus Antibiotics with Prebiotics in the treatment of mild, uncomplicated acute PID. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected 28 consecutive outpatients with mild uncomplicated acute PID. Comparative outcome of Antibiotics and Antibiotics with Prebiotics in correlation with reduction of amount, consistency and malodor of vaginal discharge along with reduction in fornical tenderness, compliance and frequency of adverse drug reactions was done. Results: Among 28 cases 14 (50%) were treated with oral Antibiotics and 14 (50%) with oral Antibiotics with Prebiotics. Comparative analysis on reduction of amount, consistency, malodor of vaginal discharge and reduction of fornical tenderness were significant, showing Antibiotics with Prebiotics more effective than Antibiotics. Conclusion: Antibiotics with Prebiotics has better efficiency and compliance over only Antibiotics in the treatment of mild, uncomplicated, acute PID.
ABSTRACT The article is regarding the development of a project proposal of Purvanchal Gramin Seva Samiti (PGSS), Gorakhpur - a Diocesan partner of Catholic Relief Services (CRS), State Office, Lucknow on interventions in brick kilns of eastern UP. The Ministry of Labour, Government of India has categorized the unorganized labour force under four groups viz. occupation, nature of employment, especially distressed categories & service categories. Workers in brick klins come under the terms of occupation category under the unorganized sector in India (GoI, 2008). The unorganized sector plays a significant role in the economy in terms of employment opportunities & poverty alleviation. The sector has a crucial role in our economy in terms of employment & its contribution to the ‘National Domestic Product (NDP), savings & capital formation. (Vikkraman, P, Basakaran, S, May, 2009). The case study brings out the reality of the workers of brick klins, their vulnerability, social insecurity, potential health risks, migration issues & the hazardous atmosphere that they thrive in their day-to-day lives. Thus, one can gauge the importance of the enactment of various acts related to the unorganized sector, social welfare schemes for this sector & the role of Non-Government Organizations for the welfare of the sector.
ABSTRACT Para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour, which usually presents as a painless mass in the scrotum or groin. A case of paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a 16-year-old male, with a history of left testicular ectopia treated with orchiopexy, is being reported here who presented with chronic scrotal swelling. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare non germ cell tumour of scrotal sac in children and young adult/teens which can invade testis at presentation. Embryonal variant is the most common type. 40% cases can have metastasis to retroperitoneal lymph node. Diagnosis can be done on high degree of clinical suspicion coupled with biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Multimodality approach of treatment is often beneficial for patients.
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Mst. Tanzina Islam
Nursing Instructor, Naogaon Nursing Institute, Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
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