ABSTRACT Abstract: Eight inbred lines collected from Ambo Agriculural Research Center Highland maize sub-program and were evaluated under optimum and Low Nitrogen condition at Ambo and Haramaya University in 2018. Breeding programs have created inbred lines of maize introduced from CIMMYT; they were tested locally for their heterosis. The objective of this study was to generate information regarding the combining ability effect of selected highland adapted maize inbred lines and their crosses for further breeding and cultivar development in view of this limitation. P6 was the lines that exhibited positive and hence good combiner for gain yield in all locations and environmental condition and crosses found to be good yield potential in this study were (P1xP2), (P2xP7) and (P4xP6).
ABSTRACT Abstract: Genetic variability is an important feature for plant breeding and crop improvement. The amount of variability that exists in the germplasm collections of any crop is the most important towards breeding for better varieties, particularly genetic variability for a given trait is a basic prerequisite for its improvement by systematic breeding. The success of any crop improvement program is not only depend on the amount of genetic variability present in the population but also on the extent to which it is heritable, which sets the limit of progress that can be achieved through selection. Heritability alone provides no indication of the amount of genetic improvement that would result from selection of individual genotypes. Hence knowledge about genetic advance coupled with heritability is most useful. Heritability and genetic advance should be considered simultaneously because it is not always true that high heritability will always be associated with high genetic advances. Further, efficiency of selection in any breeding program mainly depends upon the knowledge of association of traits. For effective selection, information on nature and magnitude of variation in population, association of character with yield and among themselves and the extent of environmental influence on the expression of these characters are necessary. Correlation coefficient and Path coefficient analysis are the most important tools to describe association of traits in maize breeding program.
ABSTRACT Abstract: The knowledge of gene action and heterosis also helps in identification of superior F1 hybrids in order to use further in future breeding programs. The objectives of this study was, therefore, to estimate heterosis and combining ability of maize inbred lines for yield and yield related traits. The analysis of variance showed there is highly significant variation between the hybrids for all the traits considerd. All crosses showed significant and positive heterotic effects over mid and better parents for grain yield. None of the crosses showed significant standard heterosis in desired direction. Mid-parent heterosis of day’s maturity ranged from -5 to 13.9%, whereas that of better parent heterosis ranged from -5 to 105%. Indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The observed highest heterosis for grain yield and related traits indicated the possibility of increasing yield by exploiting heterotic potential of maize genotypes. The information generated by this study could be useful for researchers who need to develop high yielding maize hybrids.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess allelic and genotypic frequencies at the selected blood protein [Albumin (Alb.), Haemoglobin (Hb.) and Transferrin (Tf)] loci in indigenous turkey populations in Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 42 birds, 14 birds each from Benue, Kogi and Nasarawa States via purposive sampling. The blood was analysed by electrophoresis. The genetic relationship of the population was determined by using Tools for Population Genetics Analysis (TFPGA), version 1.3. Result obtained indicated that, two co-dominant alleles (A and B) which controlled three different genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were observed for Alb and Tf while only two genotypes (AA and BB) for the Hb polymorphic loci were observed. Sexual differences in gene and genotypic frequencies of Alb, Hb and Tf of male and female turkeys showed that genotype Alb AB and allele A were prevalent in the male while genotype Alb BB and Allele B were predominant in the female turkey. However, at the haemoglobin locus, genotype HbAA and allele A were prevalent in the male and female turkey, respectively. For tranferrin, genotype TfAB was most predominant in the male with equal frequencies in both alleles while genotype TfBB and allele B were most prevalent in the female. From the estimates of variability parameters in the populations under study, it can be concluded that the populations are under similar evolutionary forces and there were no appreciable differences among them. It was recommended that the result of this study be used as initial guide for defining objective of genetic improvement and developing strategies for conservation of Nigerian indigenous turkey.
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