ABSTRACT : Nutritious food is needed to increase milk production, one of which is by consuming nutritious food, which is processed beans, especially soybeans. This study aims to determine the effect of soy milk on breast milk production in postpartum mothers in the Rejang Lebong Regency, Bengkulu Province. The method in this study is quantitative by using a quasi-experimental design method (non-equivalent control group approach). The total number of samples is 88 samples in which 44 treatment groups and 44 control groups. The results showed there was no effect of giving soy milk to postpartum mothers (with a value of p> 0.05) on the frequency of breastfeeding infants. There was no effect of giving soy milk to postpartum mothers (with a value of p> 0.05) on the sleep time of the baby after breastfeeding. There was no effect of giving soy milk to postpartum mothers (with a value of p> 0.05) on the frequency of urination of infants. There is an effect of giving soy milk to postpartum mothers (with a value of p <0.05) on the increase in the baby's weight. There was no effect of giving soy milk to postpartum mothers (with a value of p> 0.05) on milk production.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe and Ni) in the cap and stipe of four edible species of mushroom (Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella volvacea, Psathyrella candolleana and Termitomyces mammiformis). Mushroom samples were collected from two polluted areas (Ondo road and Oda road) in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. These areas are prone to high vehicular and other anthropogenic activities. The mushrooms were sun dried, separated into cap and stipe and analysed for the heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. All element concentrations were determined on dry weight basis. The results showed that there was a variation in the concentration of heavy metals in different edible mushroom species analysed. Results revealed variations in the distribution of the metals in the cap and stipe of the mushroom species. In the cap of the mushrooms, the highest concentration (mg/kg) of Cu (797.34), Cd (34.92) and Ni (54.88) were obtained in P. candolleana while Cr (94.98) and Fe (1267.36) concentrations were highest in T. mammiformis. Highest lead concentrations (14.98) were obtained in L. squarrosulus and P. candolleana. In the stipe of the mushrooms, the highest concentrations (mg/kg) of Cu (753.79), Cr (94.89), Cd (29.96) and Ni (49.92) were obtained in L. squarrosulus while the concentrations of Pb (12.50) and Fe (1308.43) were highest in P. candolleana. Generally, the values obtained for the heavy metals exceeded the recommended limits for human consumption. Vehicular and other anthropogenic activities in the study areas could be the most likely sources of the contamination. Hence, consumption of mushrooms from such areas poses risks to human health.
ABSTRACT The use of domestic waste water for irrigation is a common practice in Nigeria because of the fact that wastes water enhance soil fertility for proper growth and also accommodate a wide spectrum of enteric pathogens and antinutrients that may have a negative impact on human and the environment. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Antinutritional Factor, Microbial Load and Parasite Quality of Telfairia occidentalis under Controlled Application of Domestic Waste Water. Telfairia occidentalis seeds were planted in 18 pots and 9 pots were irrigated with waste water and the other 9 pot was irrigated with ground water which is use as control till maturity from the month of October to January. Vegetable samples were collected at random with three replications for each test sample after 4 months. The waste water, ground water, soil samples were collected and analyzed for some water and soil physicochemical properties (electrical conductivity, pH and temperature) and soil (pH, total Nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic matter, total organic carbon, and exchangeable cations K+, Mg+ and Na+) using a standard methods. Microbial load such as Total heterotrophic bacteria, E. coli, total coliform, faecal coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and intestinal parasites were determined using standard methods of APHA. Standard titrimeric methods were used to phytate and oxalate contents while Pearson method was used for cyanogenic glycoside, tannin, and alkaloid content. Results showed a significant (p < 0.05) different in water and soil physicochemical properties over the control group. The microbial load in Telfairia occidentalis irrigated with waste water ranged between 8.9×105 to 12.1 × 106 cfu/g while the control site ranged between 1.3×105 to 4.3 × 105 cfu/g. There were significant difference (p<0.05) between the test group and control. The bacterial counts recorded exceeded the recommended levels by WHO and ICMSF, standards (i.e. 10 to 102 coliforms g-1, 1
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Mst. Tanzina Islam
Nursing Instructor, Naogaon Nursing Institute, Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
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