Estimation of Resistant starch, Non-Resistant starch and Total starch of Unprocessed Foods Sourced within Nsukka Town
Ezugwu, E. C1, Nwosu, E. N, Omeje, K. O, Ubani, C. S and Eze, S. O. O
EAS J Nutr Food Sci, 2020; 2(4): 159-160
Resistant starch (RS) shows potential health benefits against certain metabolic diseases, hence, this research was aimed to determine the resistant starch contents of certain traditional foods using the Megazyme resistant starch assay kit (Megazyme, Bray, Ireland). The experimental sample was divided into four groups (cereals, legumes, stem tubers and root tubers). The RS contents measured from the pellet left after 16hr of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase digestion of samples, were greater than 10% for all the samples analyzed. White yam had the highest total starch (TS) (103.37 ± 23.43 %w/w), followed by maize (88.34 ± 8.51) and Eddoe (87.27 ± 2.32) and the least was Bambara nut (54.54 ± 2.33). Among the various groups, legume showed the least TS content on average. The resistant starch contents in the legume samples analyzed ranged from 31.60 ± 4.12 to 41.94 ± 0.43 (%w/w). On the other hand, the NRS contents in legume samples ranged from 17.30 ± 8.50 to 28.54 ± 7.57. Among the legumes analyzed, Pigeon pea had the highest RS content of 41.94 ± 0.43 and lowest NRS content of 17.30 ± 8.51. Bambara nut had quite low NRS of 17.19 ± 4.57 and relatively moderate RS content of 37.35 ± 2.93. The resistant starch contents in cereals ranged from 25.07 ± 4.19 to 31.59 ± 4.83 (%w/w). This result showed that among the various groups, cereals had the lowest RS but had the highest NRS contents on average. The NRS contents in cereals ranged from 30.12 ± 8.45 to 56.67 ± 7.51. There was a significant decrease, p<0.05, in the RS content of bitter yam (25.82 ± 10.81) when compared to all the other tubers. Conversely, there was a significant increase, p<0.05, in the level of RS content of Eddoe (54.85 ± 5.02) when compared to the bitter yam and Taro. White yam with 51.40 ± 18.29, was significantly high, p<0.05, in NRS content when compared to the other tubers. Among the stem tubers, the RS content of water yam, white yam and bitter yam was 44.69±3.95, 52.25 ± 16.96 and 25.82 ± 10.81 res
Almost everything influences food alternatives, at just one occasion and place or another. The relative importance of ‘demand-pull’ from organic green customers or ‘legislative push’ from socio-environmental legislation varies widely between completely different sorts of the market. The organic food industry has been the topic of much media attention over the past decade. the difficulty of the buyer of “How do the randomly selected consumers have knowledge/awareness of organic food products?” and “Why are some customers skeptical (doubt), regarding organic food merchandise referred to as green (SOP-Green) whereas others are not?” the aim of this paper is to bridge the research gap by conducting an explanatory study to look at consumers skepticism of organic products claiming to be “Green” (SOP-Green) in Riverdale, Georgia, while the goal is to analyzes consumer whether or not they are skeptical of organic products claiming to be “Green” (SOP-Green) supported choice experiments to be conducted through face-to-face interviews. Specifically, the target is to work out which demographic variables (Age and Marital status) and knowledge/awareness of organic food variables (buy organic food products, conversant in organic food products, and believe the knowledge published about organic advantages) may affect consumers about SOP-Green in Riverdale, Georgia. Data collection happened last year between August-December, 2018 in Riverdale, Georgia. the info collection survey instrument was designed in two sections. within the first section, consumers’ demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, family size, legal status, gross household income, education level) were included. within the second section, consumers' knowledge/awareness of organic food products was considered. Purchasers were approached during their food shopping in outlets of three retail chains in two different areas of Riverdale (one outlet per chain) employing a structured questionnaire. Overall, 80 people we
Peanuts are considered as one of the rich sources of healthy nutrition. India is among the major producers of peanuts in the world but ironically, India also has the largest number of malnourished people. In such a case, consumption of peanuts can be extremely advantageous. Allergies from peanuts are consonantly less widespread in India. Peanut is employed in many traditional dishes within the country through the schemes of Mid-day meal and on the lines of plumpy nuts, the undernourished are often fed and the dual burden of malnutrition and overweight can be reduced. Thus, dual outlook of appreciable industrialisation and organisational creativity of peanut products can create a healthy population. It is for sure, that there's an enormous extent for the industrialisation of peanut products. Hence, the market mania looks extremely hopeful due to these footnoted factors. Further, peanuts can reduce the daily use of unwanted supplementation from non-dietary roots. Chickpeas (also referred as garbanzo beans) are referred as one of the earliest eaten crops within the world and hang in the air today, nearly in every continent. Chickpeas are the part of many long-established diets for more than 7,500 years. Still, they are included in the diets of the healthiest populations living around the world today, counting those who eat traditional cuisines that rise from the centre east side, the Mediterranean sea region and African tribes too. Next to the soyabean, chickpeas is the bean generally grown and eaten worldwide. Chickpeas are a kind of legume that gives so many health benefits. Chickpeas also helps to extend satiety, fasten digestion, manage blood glucose levels, increase the body's ability to fight against diseases and many more such benefits. Chickpeas are nutritionally dense, packaged with lots of proteins, vitamins and minerals, which is one of the reasons why they are specifically included in various healing diets. In the present scenario, life-style changes which
Xanthosoma maffafa Schott (XMS) is under-utilized cocoyam whose tuber and leaf have potential nutritional and functional benefit. This study evaluated the effect of sun and solar drying on the proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional content of XMS tuber and leaf. The result of the proximate composition showed significant (p<0.05) differences for moisture (5.70 – 7.20%), ash (2.10 – 7.80%), fat (0.90 – 6.40%), fibre (2.60 – 8.60%), protein (6.38 – 20.93%) and carbohydrate (49.38 – 81.83%) contents. The sun and solar dried leaf had 3-fold ash, 6-fold fat, 3-fold fibre and 3-fold protein than the sun and solar dried tuber sample. The mineral content ranged for calcium (151.93 – 204.73 mg/100g), magnesium (71.02 – 120.25 mg/100g), phosphorus (18.3 – 43.89 mg/100g), iron (4.70 – 7.89 mg/100g) and zinc (2.78 – 4.60 mg/100g), with the leaves having higher values than the tuber irrespective of the dying method. For anti-nutrients, the result showed significant variations. Tannin, phytate, phenol, oxalate and HCN ranged as follows: 0.55 - 1.11 mg/100g, 0.14 – 0.48 mg/100g, 0.22 – 0.43 mg/100g and 0.20 – 0.40 mg/100g, respectively. The leaf showed higher values of anti-nutrient compounds for both processing methods. The overall result revealed that XMS leaf is a richer source of nutrients than the tuber and that solar drying was preferred to sun drying not only for nutrient quality, but for better hygienic XMS products.
Keywords: Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott flour; Leaf powder; Sun drying; Solar drying; Nutrient quality; Anti-nutrients,
One of the chronic nutrition problems in Indonesia is stunting, which is a risk marker for bad child development. This study aims to determine the relationship between drinking water sources, drinking water treatment and sewage management to the incidence of stunting in two-year-old children in Mamuju Regency. This type of research is observational analytic using cross-sectional study. Samples of this study were all mothers of two-year-old children who live in Mamuju Regency. The total sample in this study were 191 respondents. The sampling technique by using the Proportional Random Sampling technique. Data were analyzed by bivariate analysis using chi-square test to assess the relationship between independent variables (drinking water sources, drinking water treatment and sewage management) and dependent variables (stunting). The results showed that there was a relationship between drinking water sources (PR 1,394, 95% CI, 0,970-2,003, p=0,042), drinking water treatment (PR 1,332, 95% CI, 1,048-1,693, p=0,038) and sewage management (PR 2,743, 95% CI, 1,265-5,948, p=0,000) with the incidence of stunting in 2-year-old children in Mamuju Regency. Therefore, it is expected that the public will consume drinking water from protected sources and treat drinking water before consumption for the prevention of water-borne diseases. In addition, it is also necessary to implement waste management that is safe for health and the environment.
Keywords: Children, Stunting, Drinking Water, Sewage.