ABSTRACT Only recently microbial impurity of beach sand has become an essential issue, particularly during the COVID-19 and in the post-Covid period when a large number of beachgoers are infected not only by the virus but also with other microbes. Besides the bacterial and viral microbes, fungal contamination of beach sand has also been studied in detail in the recent past. Although few Candida spp. have been isolated from the beach sand, the growths of common pathogenic Candida spp. like Candida albicans has not been studied so far. In this study, we used two species of pathogenic Candida – Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis to observe their growth patterns in sea sand. Growths of both species were inhibited in sea sand. It eliminates the possibility of long survival of these species in sea sand and thus their existence mainly appears as surface contamination.
ABSTRACT Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in Ethiopia and plays a significant role in the agricultural and textile industrial development of the country’s economy. However, the progress in cotton production and productivity in rain-fed environments has been impeded by the absence of improved varieties and inadequate management practices. Presently, there are no recommended cotton varieties specifically tailored for rain-fed environments in northwestern Ethiopia, an area that is largely conducive to cotton cultivation. Interestingly, some investors have chosen to cultivate genotypes that have been recommended for irrigation purposes, particularly within the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. In the current investigation, an assessment was conducted on various cotton varieties in order to determine their quantitative traits during the primary cultivation period of 2017 and 2018 at Pawe Agricultural Research Centre. The objective of the experiment was to assess seven cotton genotypes using a randomized complete block design, with the aim of identifying genotypes that are highly adaptable and possess high-yielding characteristics. The statistical analysis of variance demonstrated a significant distinction among the traits that were examined. Within this study, the most productive genotypes were identified as Werer-05 and Candia, with yields of 1722.19 kg/ha and 1617.41 kg/ha, respectively. The observed variations in the characteristics of the various cotton varieties indicate the presence of diversity, which holds significant implications for future cotton breeding.
ABSTRACT Bacteria are the most numerous group of organisms. Most of these unicellular organisms are necessary for maintaining the life of other macroorganisms on Earth. These bacteria were essential in biological evolution, and today they are the basis of every food chain in nature. They are present in soil and water. Other bacteria are members of the physiological flora of humans and animals (they live on the skin, in the oral and nasal mucosa, intestines, lower part of the female reproductive system), perform desirable chemical processes and are used in various economic activities. Of the 1,500 described species of bacteria, only about a hundred species are human pathogens.
ABSTRACT Background: Liver cancer is a major health problem in Egypt. Understanding its epidemiology can help identify high-risk groups and inform prevention strategies. Objective: To investigate regional and occupational variations in liver cancer characteristics and diagnoses in Damietta governorate, Egypt. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the Damietta Cancer Institute in 2021. 128 case diagnosed as Liver cancer were analyzed based on age, location, occupation, cancer stage, provisional diagnosis, and sex. Results: Primary liver cancer was more prevalent in younger individuals while metastatic cancer dominated in older age groups. Certain areas exhibited higher primary cancer rates than others. Provisional diagnoses varied by occupation and location. Male patients presented with more advanced stages and distant metastasis compared to females. Conclusions: Geographical and occupational disparities exist in liver cancer profiles. Sex differences were observed in disease presentation. Robust studies are needed to establish causal relationships and explore underlying disease mechanisms. Understanding regional cancer patterns can help prioritize preventive efforts and develop targeted screening programs.
ABSTRACT Adimenu is a local herbal mixture made from extracts of selected plants for medicinal purpose. Users of the herb become dizzy after use; there are cases of sudden collapse and hospitalization; headaches, and stomach disorder have been reported. The current study investigates toxicity evaluation of Adimenu using Allium cepa L. chromosomal assay. The herbal mixture was made into different concentrations- 1 to 100%, while distilled water served as the control. Allium cepa bulbs of average sizes were placed on equal volumes of the varying concentrations in beakers prepared for rooting. The following parameters were evaluated- number of roots, length of roots, root Growth Inhibition (%), mitotic Index and cytogenetic analysis. For the cytogenetic study the roots from each bulb were plucked and fixed for 24 hours, then hydrolyzed in 1N HCl at 60OC for 1minute. The root tip was excised using scalpel and placed in orcein stain on glass slide, it was squashed and then covered with cover slip and pressed; the cells were scored under a light microscope for chromosomal aberrations. Results revealed the first experimental set-up, which involved 20 to 100% concentration of Adimenu had no root emergence. The repeated experiment using lower concentrations showed root outgrowths with 2.0 to 8.0%; the length of roots was inversely proportional to the herbal mixture concentrations. The root growth inhibition (RGI) revealed the higher the concentrations, the higher the % inhibition on root outgrowth and the lengths. The mitotic index (MI) reduces as the herbal concentrations increase. The cytogenetic analysis showed two main mitotic defects, namely: (i) Anaphase chromosome bridge and (ii) Cytokinesis defects. The herbal mixture, Adimenu, induced degeneration of the protein regulator of cytokinesis (PRC) which is vital for cytokinesis and normal cell cleavage and thereby caused defects in cytokinesis. The cytokinesis defect is responsible for initiating and promoting chromosomal .......
ABSTRACT We all observe World Environment Day on June 5th every year. The issue of recycling cuts across many subjects. The entire process starts under the domain of agriculture. The real process involved comes under the domain of biotechnology. Once the product like a bio-decomposer is out, its use again comes under the umbrella of agriculture & horticulture. Consumption of the output falls under nutrition & its impact is felt in public health. To see the effectiveness of the process, the methods of research are adhered to. The article discusses the vagaries of the monsoon & discusses the importance of bio-decomposers to address these vagaries both at household & community level. The concept of kitchen garden, its cost effectiveness, process of formation of bio-decomposers and biotechnology involvement are described through the literature review mentioned in the article. The crux of the article is the case study of preparing a bio-decomposer, using the bio-decomposer for the plants or vegetables thus enriching them. Finally, the process of formation of soil by using the bio-decomposer on the used tea leaves & used flowers. On the top of it, using only dry cow dung & dry leaves as manures is the key.
ABSTRACT Diabetes in children and adolescents is considered rare in Africa due to a lack of data. We conducted a retrospective analytical study for 12 years, based on patient records between 2010 and 2022, and analyzed the epidemiological and evolutionary aspects of patients. A total of 236 patients were enrolled, including 121 (51.48%) men and 114 (48.51%) women. The average age at the discovery of the disease was 16.29±5.39 years, ranging from 1 year to 19 years. The most represented age group was 10-20 years. The incidence rate was 2.43/10,000 inhabitants/year. The prevalence of childhood diabetes mellitus in Pointe-Noire was 0.20%. We observed 98.29% cases of T1D, 0.85% of secondary diabetes, 0.42% of T2D, and 0.42% cases of MODY. Diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common cause of hospitalization (51.89%). Follow-up was regular for 43.82% of patients but marked by patients lost to follow-up (14.46%) and a significant number of deaths (18.72%). Better biological monitoring of our patients will prevent complications and improve care.
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Mst. Tanzina Islam
Nursing Instructor, Naogaon Nursing Institute, Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
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