ABSTRACT Background: The contraceptives usage among pupils remains a topical issue globally, regionally and locally. Zambia is underpinned by Christian principles and values and despite that, the country continues to record high levels of unplanned pregnancies among pupils and this hampers the education of a girl child. The study has established that most pupils are sexually active and this puts them at a higher risk of getting unplanned pregnancies and consequently dropping out of School. Objective: The study aimed at investigating the “Factors Affecting Contraceptive Usage Among Pupils in Selected Secondary Schools within Chingola District, Zambia”. Methods and Materials: The study used a cross- sectional study design in which 52 pupils from Chingola and Sekela Secondary Schools were included in a study. The study employed semi-questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Conclusion: The study has revealed that pupils are at a higher risk of unplanned pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted diseases despite them having knowledge of contraceptives usage. The study has also indicated that 63.5% of pupils were aware of the existence of contraceptives and their functions as a means of prevention of pregnancies. Therefore, there is need of deliberate move by Ministry of Health through District Health offices to promote accessibility to various methods of contraceptives by pupils especially those in Secondary Schools who are sexually active.
ABSTRACT Background: A factor that contributes to the poor health of both the mother and the fetus is Anemia. Pregnant women must therefore receive prenatal care that includes the identification and management of Anemia properly. Case Presentation: This case report provides an analysis of the pregnancy circumstances of Mrs. R, a 22-year-old housewife from a middle-class socioeconomic background, who is anticipating her first child. From the pregnancy data obtained, Mrs. R experienced anemia, supported by supporting examinations of hemoglobin levels. The management provided included iron supplementation and the consumption of beetroot, which has been proven to be an effective food to increase hemoglobin levels. At 40 weeks of pregnancy with no signs of labor, it was recommended to engage in sexual intercourse to stimulate contractions and undergo oxytocin massage at 40 weeks and 4 days of pregnancy. The parturition process ultimately took place at 40 weeks 5 days of gestation, spontaneously. The total duration of the first stage of labor was 22 hours, the second stage was 2 hours, the third stage was 11 minutes, and the fourth stage was 2 hours. The baby was born spontaneously, cried loudly, weighed 3,600 grams, and showed a cranial deformity, specifically asymmetric head shape. There were no complications during labor and the postpartum period. Although Mrs. R is deeply committed to maintaining a healthy pregnancy, managing the Anemia that was detected in the early stages of the pregnancy presents a formidable challenge. Through her scrupulous observance of monthly prenatal examinations and regular administration of blood supplement tablets and additional multivitamins, Mrs. R effectively controlled her Anemia, thereby facilitating the successful culmination of the delivery procedure. Conclusion: Accurate evaluation of anemia during pregnancy is crucial for the proper treatment of anemia. In Indonesia, the effective treatment of severe anemia necessitates ......
ABSTRACT The meaning of stunting is not limited to children being shorter than their peers, where the meaning is more than that. Stunted children are prone to disease. Stunting children is a widely accepted predictor of poor quality of human resources, which in turn reduces a nation's productive capacity in the future. The aim of the research is to examine the structural model of the quality of life of stunted children using a partial least squares modeling approach in Kupang City to accelerate improving the quality of human resources. The research was designed cross-sectionally using a stratified sampling procedure, carried out using stratification and cluster techniques. Two sub-districts were randomly selected and obtained, namely Oesapa sub-district in the working area of the Oesapa Community Health Center representing the coastal ecosystem zone, and Sikumana sub-district in the Sikumana Community Health Center working area representing the plain ecosystem zone. In each ecosystem zone, 50 households were systematically selected that had stunted toddlers. Thus, as many as 100 stunting households were involved. The information data collected are: characteristics of the social ecosystem (environment), food security, mother's parenting patterns, housing environment sanitation, disease control efforts, nutritional intake, nutritional status, incidence of illness and quality of life for children under five. Data collection techniques were structured interviews, measurements, observations and group discussions. Data analysis using smartPLS-based structural equation modeling. The research results show that the quality of life of stunted children in Kupang City, both in the coastal ecosystem zone and the plain ecosystem zone is in normal status. Maternal parenting factors have a significant direct effect on improving the quality of life of stunted children with a large role reaching 45%; Meanwhile, social ecosystem (environmental) characteristics, food security and ..............
ABSTRACT Background: Blood transfusion is essential and the most common therapeutic use in which transfused blood and its elements to save a patient's life. However, transfusion recovers a patient's life, but it is not without risk. Blood transfusion is a critical and standard therapeutic procedure in which patients are given blood and its components to preserve their lives. Millions of patients want blood and blood merchandise transfusions worldwide. Blood infusions may be a very important want for a few patients; however, while not cautious, it may be a grievous intervention. It is calculated that in every 13000 cases of Blood infusions, one error happens mainly because of preventable human errors through applicable education and reform in insertion protocols. Objective: The aim was to assess the level of Nurses' Knowledge Regarding the Management of Blood Transfusion patients at 250 Bedded Mohammad Ali Hospital, Bogura. Methodology: This descriptive type of cross-sectional study design was used, and a 110-sample size that was a purposive sampling technique followed those who met the inclusion criteria to assess the Nurses' Knowledge Regarding the Management of Blood Transfusion. The study was conducted from July 2021 to December 2021. The instruments for data collection were a semi-structured questionnaire composed of two parts: Demographic variables and a nurses' knowledge-related questionnaire. The respondents were assured that confidentially and anonymity were strictly maintained. Results: The findings of the present study revealed that 12.73% had a high level of knowledge score, 47.27% had a moderate level of knowledge, and 40% had a low level of knowledge regarding blood transfusion. Conclusion: It is concluded that the study provided baseline information for the current situations of the selected hospital. Nurses play an integral role in blood transfusion. Also, nurses must have adequate knowledge of all transfusion processes to maintain patients' safety. ........
ABSTRACT Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections among the youth are of paramount concern to all people who work on improving the health status of populations worldwide as the highest reported rates of sexually transmitted infections are found among the people between 15-24 years of age which predispose them to infertility, general ill-health, pelvic inflammatory diseases in women, three-fold HIV transmission with mother-to-child sexually transmitted infections resulting in still births, neonatal deaths, prematurity, sepsis, pneumonia, congenital deformities and other morbidities. Therefore the study aimed to assess the factors associated with increased number of sexually transmitted cases in the youth of Serenje Urban District, Zambia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 138 youth of Serenje urban district selected using simple random sampling technique. The data were collected using a structured, pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Chi square and multivariate logistical regression analyses were employed through SPSS version 22 to assess and identify factors associated with increased sexually transmitted cases in the youth of Serenje urban district. Odds Ratio with a 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of association. In the multivariate analysis, variables with p-value less than 5% were considered as statistically associated, association between covariates and sexually transmitted infections. Results: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among the youth of Serenje Urban District was found to be 55%. About 47.8% of the respondents had high knowledge levels on STIs, 60% had multiple sexual partners, 34.8% used condom during the last intercourse, 27.5% experienced sexual coercion and 24.5% utilized youth friendly services. Most (43.5%) respondents in this study had poor practices towards STI prevention. Service related such as lack of consumable for STI treatment (92%) and erratic supply ........
ABSTRACT Work-related stress is reportedly a very common issue among nurses in health care. This study was aimed at assessing the level of work-related stress among nurses in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Objectives were to: assess the level of work-related stress, compare the level of work-related stress among nurses across units/wards and assess for availability of stress reduction support systems. Cross sectional descriptive survey design was adopted with a sample size of 288 nurses. A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data and data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages with the aid of SPSS version 23 and difference between variables was tested using T test. Majority (86.3%) of the nurses experienced severe stress, all respondents (100%) lacked support systems, and there was significant difference in the stress level between the units/wards. It was suggested, therefore, that a special reward/recognition should be introduced to nurses who were dedicated to their work, and more nurses employed to share the work burden, with occupational health services provided in the study center.
ABSTRACT Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, it is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by recurrent reversible airway obstruction leads to airway hyper reactivity, which causes the airways to narrow. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention program on improving self-care practices of asthmatic children. A quasi experimental study was utilized. The study was conducted at pediatric Emergency Department and pediatric Outpatient Clinic at Suez Canal University Hospitals. The study subject included purposive sample of school aged children (40) with their accompanying mothers. Two tools were used; A structured interview questionnaire sheet, and observational checklists to assess children's knowledge and self-care practices regarding bronchial asthma. Results: Regarding knowledge and self-care practices of the studied children about bronchial asthma, the results showed that all children had unsatisfied knowledge and self-care practices pre-test that improved at post and follow up intervention phase where most of them had either satisfied level or partial satisfied level. The study concluded that implementation of the educational intervention program improved knowledge of the studied children about bronchial asthma, enhanced self-care practices, reduced frequency of asthmatic attack and reduced school absence days. The study recommended continuous educational intervention program based on actual need assessment for improving self-care practices of asthmatic children.
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Mst. Tanzina Islam
Nursing Instructor, Naogaon Nursing Institute, Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
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